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Objective—To estimate potential revenue impacts of an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the United States similar to the outbreak in the United Kingdom during 2001.

Design—Economic analysis successively incorporating quarantine and slaughter of animals, an export ban, and consumer fears about the disease were used to determine the combined impact.

Sample Population—Secondary data for cattle, swine, lambs, poultry, and products of these animals.

Procedure—Data for 1999 were used to calibrate a model for the US agricultural sector. Removal of animals, similar to that observed in the United Kingdom, was introduced, along with a ban on exportation of livestock, red meat, and dairy products and a reduction and shift in consumption of red meat in the United States.

Results—The largest impacts on farm income of an FMD outbreak were from the loss of export markets and reductions in domestic demand arising from consumer fears, not from removal of infected animals. These elements could cause an estimated decrease of $14 billion (9.5%) in US farm income. Losses in gross revenue for each sector were estimated to be the following: live swine, –34%; pork, –24%; live cattle –17%; beef, –20%; milk, –16%; live lambs and sheep, –14%; lamb and sheep meat, –10%; forage, –15%; and soybean meal, –7%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Procedures to contain an outbreak of FMD to specific regions and allow maintenance of FMD-free exports and efforts to educate consumers about health risks are critical to mitigating adverse economic impacts of an FMD outbreak. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:988–992)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To compare expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin K and histologic changes in canine cranial cruciate ligaments (CCLs) and human anterior cruciate ligaments (ACLs).

Study Population—Sections of cruciate ligaments from 15 dogs with ruptured CCLs, 8 aged dogs with intact CCLs, 14 human beings with ruptured ACLs, and 11 aged human beings with intact ACLs.

Procedure—The CCLs and ACLs were evaluated histologically, and cells containing TRAP and cathepsin K were identified histochemically and immunohistochemically, respectively.

Results—The proportion of ruptured CCLs that contained TRAP+ cells was significantly higher than the proportion of intact ACLs that did but similar to proportions of intact CCLs and ruptured ACLs that did. The proportion of ruptured CCLs that contained cathepsin K+ cells was significantly increased, compared with all other groups. Numbers of TRAP+ and cathepsin K+ cells were significantly increased in ruptured CCLs, compared with intact ACLs. The presence of TRAP+ cells was correlated with inflammatory changes, which were most prominent in ruptured CCLs.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that synovial macrophage-like cells that produce TRAP are an important feature of the inflammation associated with CCL rupture in dogs. Identification of TRAP and cathepsin K in intact CCLs and ACLs from aged dogs suggests that these enzymes have a functional role in cruciate ligament remodeling and repair. We hypothesize that recruitment and activation of TRAP+ macrophage-like cells into the stifle joint synovium and CCL epiligament are critical features of the inflammatory arthritis that promotes progressive degradation and eventual rupture of the CCL in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:2073–2080)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research