Objective—To estimate potential revenue impacts of
an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the
United States similar to the outbreak in the United
Kingdom during 2001.
Design—Economic analysis successively incorporating
quarantine and slaughter of animals, an export
ban, and consumer fears about the disease were
used to determine the combined impact.
Sample Population—Secondary data for cattle,
swine, lambs, poultry, and products of these animals.
Procedure—Data for 1999 were used to calibrate a
model for the US agricultural sector. Removal of animals,
similar to that observed in the United Kingdom,
was introduced, along with a ban on exportation of
livestock, red meat, and dairy products and a reduction
and shift in consumption of red meat in the
Results—The largest impacts on farm income of an
FMD outbreak were from the loss of export markets
and reductions in domestic demand arising from consumer
fears, not from removal of infected animals.
These elements could cause an estimated decrease
of $14 billion (9.5%) in US farm income. Losses in
gross revenue for each sector were estimated to be
the following: live swine, –34%; pork, –24%; live cattle
–17%; beef, –20%; milk, –16%; live lambs and
sheep, –14%; lamb and sheep meat, –10%; forage,
–15%; and soybean meal, –7%.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Procedures
to contain an outbreak of FMD to specific regions and
allow maintenance of FMD-free exports and efforts to
educate consumers about health risks are critical to
mitigating adverse economic impacts of an FMD outbreak.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:988–992)
Objective—To compare expression of tartrate-resistant
acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin K and
histologic changes in canine cranial cruciate ligaments
(CCLs) and human anterior cruciate ligaments (ACLs).
Study Population—Sections of cruciate ligaments
from 15 dogs with ruptured CCLs, 8 aged dogs with
intact CCLs, 14 human beings with ruptured ACLs,
and 11 aged human beings with intact ACLs.
Procedure—The CCLs and ACLs were evaluated histologically,
and cells containing TRAP and cathepsin K
were identified histochemically and immunohistochemically,
Results—The proportion of ruptured CCLs that contained
TRAP+ cells was significantly higher than the
proportion of intact ACLs that did but similar to proportions
of intact CCLs and ruptured ACLs that did.
The proportion of ruptured CCLs that contained
cathepsin K+ cells was significantly increased, compared
with all other groups. Numbers of TRAP+ and
cathepsin K+ cells were significantly increased in ruptured
CCLs, compared with intact ACLs. The presence
of TRAP+ cells was correlated with inflammatory
changes, which were most prominent in ruptured
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that synovial macrophage-like cells that produce
TRAP are an important feature of the inflammation
associated with CCL rupture in dogs. Identification of
TRAP and cathepsin K in intact CCLs and ACLs from
aged dogs suggests that these enzymes have a functional
role in cruciate ligament remodeling and repair.
We hypothesize that recruitment and activation of
TRAP+ macrophage-like cells into the stifle joint synovium
and CCL epiligament are critical features of the
inflammatory arthritis that promotes progressive
degradation and eventual rupture of the CCL in dogs.
(Am J Vet Res 2005;66:2073–2080)