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  • Author or Editor: John F. Fessler x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate efficacy of debridement for treatment of supraspinous bursitis in horses and to evaluate the outcome.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—10 horses with clinical signs of supraspinous bursitis.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for signalment, anamnesis, results of physical and radiographic examination, microbial culture results of supraspinous bursa tissue or exudate, Brucella abortustiters, type of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory therapies, surgical technique, complications of the surgical procedure, and findings on histologic examination of excised nuchal ligament and bursal tissue. Telephone follow-up with owners, trainers, or referring veterinarians was performed.

Results—The described surgical technique was effective in resolving drainage from the supraspinous bursal region in 5 of 6 horses available for long-term follow-up. The most common complication following surgery was the development of purulent wound drainage. Two horses required multiple surgeries to resolve clinical signs of supraspinous bursitis. The most common organism isolated from the supraspinous bursa was β- hemolytic Streptococcus spp. All horses were discharged from the hospital and long-term follow-up was available for 6 horses. All 6 horses could be used for their intended use.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Debridement in standing horses is an effective method of resolving clinical signs of supraspinous bursitis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:74–78)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the management of equids undergoing cryptorchidectomy at a referral hospital.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—604 client-owned equids.

Procedures—Medical records of all equids undergoing surgical treatment of cryptorchidism from 1977 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Analyses of breed, location of retained testes, accuracy of palpation per rectum for determining the location of retained testes, surgical technique, and postoperative complications were performed.

Results—The most frequently affected breed was the Quarter Horse (282/604 [47%]), which was significantly overrepresented. Of the 604 equids, 90 (15%) had undergone previous surgical attempts at castration. Preoperative palpation per rectum was performed in 395/604 (65.4%) patients, and was accurate in predicting the location of the retained testes in 354/395 (89.6%). Surgeons were significantly more likely to be incorrect in determining the location of the retained testis by means of palpation per rectum in patients that had undergone a prior attempt at castration. For equids with abdominal cryptorchidism (360/604 [59.6%]), the most common surgical technique was noninvasive cryptorchidectomy (298/360 [82.8%]). In unilateral cryptorchids (521/604 [86.3%]), the 2 most common sites were left abdominal (184/521 [35.3%]) and right inguinal (148/521 [28.4%]). For bilateral retention (80/604 [13.2%]), abdominal cryptorchidism was most common (48/80 [60%]). Fever was present in 138/324 (43%) equids on the first day after surgery. Postoperative fever was not significantly associated with any variables evaluated. Including postoperative (≤ 24 hours) fever, 150 of 604 (25%) patients developed postoperative complications. Excluding postoperative fever, 18 of 604 (3%) patients developed major postoperative complications; complications in 10 of 604 patients were deemed surgically related, and 3 of 604 patients died.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that cryptorchidectomy in equids performed with a variety of surgical approaches was associated with minimal postoperative complications. A history of previous attempts at castration decreased the ability to accurately predict the location of the retained testis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine outcome of horses in which cutaneous masses were removed with a carbon dioxide laser.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—32 horses.

Procedure—Medical records of horses with 1 or more cutaneous masses treated with a carbon dioxide laser were examined. Follow-up information was obtained through telephone interviews with owners and referring veterinarians.

Results—Cutaneous masses were classified as sarcoids (15 horses), neoplastic masses other than sarcoids (squamous cell carcinoma [9]; fibroma [1]; and melanoma [1]), and nonneoplastic masses (6). Minimum follow-up time was 6 months. Five sarcoids and 2 squamous cell carcinomas recurred. Seven (21%) horses had complications associated with dehiscence of wounds that had been closed primarily or failure of wound healing because of recurrence of the mass. Twenty-six (81%) owners were satisfied with the cosmetic appearance following surgery.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that a carbon dioxide laser may be effective for treatment of cutaneous masses in horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1192–1197)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

The scavenging of superoxide radicals by endogenous and therapeutically administered superoxide dismutases may prevent superoxide-mediated oxidative stress leading to lipid peroxidation, membrane lysis, and cell death in a wide variety of normal and pathologic states. Simple inorganic manganous salts such as MnCl2 also have superoxide dismutase-like activity and are extremely inexpensive, compared with enzymatic superoxide dismutase preparations. In this study, we explored the use of Mn salts as antioxidant drugs. We used the percentage of inhibition of nitroblue tetrazolium reduction by superoxide as a measure of the amount of superoxide dismutase-like activity. We found concentration-related increases in superoxide scavenging activity in simple buffer solutions upon addition of 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0 μM MnSO4. To determine whether Mn salts can inhibit oxidative damage in tissues, we used an in vitro model of lipid peroxidation in ischemic and reoxygenated rat liver slices. Concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 μmoles MnCl2/L of buffer significantly decreased indicators of lipid peroxidation believed to be initiated by intracellular superoxide. We then determined the effectiveness of MnCl2 as a superoxide scavenger in conscious horses by measuring the superoxide scavenging ability of equine plasma before and during intravenous infusions of 1.0 L volumes of 0.9% slaine solution containing 0, 12.5, or 25 mM MnCl2. Plasma Mn concentrations, which were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, increased as a function of time and dose. Intravenously administered MnCl2 concomitantly produced dose-related increases in superoxide scavenging ability of equine plasma at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after the onset of infusion, compared with preinfusion control values. Heart rate and blood pressure of the treated horses, which were monitored to measure toxicity of MnCl2, gradually increased in both treatment groups. Clinical adverse effects of MnCl2 administration included defecation, pawing, hyperexcitability, flank watching, and sweating. The results of this study indicate that simple Mn salts may scavenge superoxide radicals in vivo with minimal adverse reactions and at a trivial cost.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether heavy (≥ 680 kg [≥ 1,500 lb]) draft horses undergoing surgical treatment for acute signs of abdominal pain were at a greater risk for anesthetic and postoperative complications and lower postoperative survival rates than light (< 680 kg) draft horses.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—72 draft horses.

Procedures—Medical records of draft horses that underwent exploratory celiotomy for signs of acute abdominal pain from October 1983 to December 2002 were reviewed. Medical records of draft horses in which a celiotomy was performed for correction of reproductive abnormalities were not included in the study.

Results—When compared with light draft horses, heavy draft horses had longer durations of anesthesia, more postoperative complications, and lower survival rates. Seventy-six percent of horses that recovered from anesthesia had postoperative complications. Postoperative complications associated with low survival rates included myopathy and neuropathy, ileus, diarrhea, and endotoxemia. All horses with postoperative myopathy and neuropathy died or were euthanized. The short-term survival rate for horses that recovered from anesthesia was 60%. Horses undergoing small intestinal surgery had a worse prognosis for short-term survival than those undergoing large intestinal surgery. The survival rate for horses for which long-term (> 1 year) follow-up information was available was 50%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Draft horses weighing > 680 kg that underwent surgery because of acute signs of abdominal pain had longer durations of anesthesia, more postoperative complications, and higher mortality rates than draft horses weighing < 680 kg.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association