Objective—To determine the prevalence of and clinical features associated with incidental adrenal gland lesions (IAGLs) discovered during abdominal ultrasonography in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—151 dogs with an IAGL and 400 control dogs.
Procedures—Reports of ultrasonographic examinations of the abdomen of dogs performed during a 3.5-year period were reviewed. Adrenal glands were classified as having an IAGL if a nodule or mass was described or the width of either gland was ≥ 10 mm. For dogs with an IAGL, information regarding signalment, concurrent disorders, and outcome was obtained from the medical record. Findings were compared with those in a control population of 400 dogs examined during the same period.
Results—An IAGL was detected in 151 of 3,748 (4%) dogs. Dogs with an IAGL were significantly older (median age, 11.25 years) and heavier (median body weight, 21 kg [46.2 lb]) than the control population (median age, 9.5 years; median body weight, 14 kg [30.8 lb]). Malignant tumors were reported in 6 of 20 (30%) dogs that underwent adrenal glandectomy or necropsy and had a maximum IAGL dimension that ranged from 20 to 46 mm; benign lesions all had a maximum dimension < 20 mm. Various coincidental conditions were reported in dogs with an IAGL, including nonadrenal gland malignant neoplasia in 43 (28.5%) dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IAGLs were more likely in dogs ≥ 9 years of age. On the basis of this small data set, malignancy should be suspected for IAGLs ≥ 20 mm in maximum dimension.
Objective—To devise a technique for gradual occlusion
of the caudal vena cava in dogs and determine
effects of complete occlusion of the caudal vena cava.
Animals—8 mixed-breed hounds that weighed
between 25 and 30 kg.
Procedure—Baseline evaluation of dogs included
serum biochemical analyses and determination of
glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with dynamic renal
scintigraphy and plasma clearance analysis. An
occluder was placed around the vena cava in the
region cranial to the renal veins. The occluder was
attached to a vascular access port. The vena cava was
gradually occluded over 2 weeks. The GFR was measured
every 2 weeks after surgery, and venograms
were performed every 3 weeks after surgery. Blood
samples were collected every 48 hours for the first
week and then weekly thereafter to measure BUN
and creatinine concentrations and activities of alanine
transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and creatinine
kinase. Dogs were euthanatized 6 weeks after
surgery, and tissues were submitted for histologic
examination. The GFR and biochemical data were
compared with baseline values.
Results—Gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava
was easily and consistently performed with this
method, and adverse clinical signs were not detected.
Formation of collateral vessels allowed overall
GFR to remain constant despite a decrease in function
of the left kidney. Measured biochemical values
did not deviate from reference ranges.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gradual
occlusion of the caudal vena cava may allow removal
of adrenal gland tumors with vascular invasion that
would otherwise be difficult or impossible to resect.
(Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1347–1353)
Objective—To investigate differences in CSF concentrations of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in dogs with and without T2-weighted (T2W) MRI hyperintense areas in the limbic system.
Sample—Archived CSF samples and stored brain MRI images of 5 healthy research dogs (group 1), 8 dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) with no abnormal MRI findings (group 2), and 4 dogs with IE with hyperintense areas in the limbic system detected by means of T2W MRI (group 3).
Procedures—Archived CSF samples and stored MRI images obtained from all dogs were evaluated. Dogs in groups 2 and 3 were matched on the basis of age and breed. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to evaluate glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in CSF samples.
Results—Glutamate concentrations were higher in CSF of both groups of dogs with IE than in healthy dogs. However, glutamate concentrations in CSF were not significantly higher in dogs with IE and with hyperintense areas than in dogs with IE but no abnormal MRI findings. Concentrations of GABA in CSF were higher in group 3 than in group 2 and in group 2 than in group 1.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—No significant difference was evident between glutamate concentrations in CSF of dogs with IE and with and without hyperintense areas detected by means of T2W MRI. However, glutamate concentrations typically were higher in CSF of dogs with IE and MRI hyperintense areas. Future studies with larger sample sizes should be conducted to confirm this finding and to determine the clinical importance of high glutamate concentrations in CSF of dogs with IE.
Objective—To identify potential bacterial pathogens
in normal and telangiectatic livers of mature cattle at
slaughter and to identify consumer risk associated
with hepatic telangiectasia.
Sample Population—50 normal livers and 50 severely
Procedure—Normal and telangiectatic livers were
collected at slaughter for aerobic and anaerobic bacterial
culture. Isolates were identified, and patterns of
isolation were analyzed. Histologic examination of all
livers was performed.
Results—Human pathogens isolated from normal
and telangiectatic livers included Escherichia coli
O157:H7 and group-D streptococci. Most livers in
both groups contained bacteria in low numbers; however,
more normal livers yielded negative culture
results. More group-D streptococci were isolated
from the right lobes of telangiectatic livers than from
the left lobes, and more gram-negative anaerobic bacteria
were isolated from left lobes of telangiectatic livers
than from right lobes. All telangiectatic lesions
were free of fibrosis, active necrotizing processes,
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The USDA
regulation condemning telangiectatic livers is justified
insofar as these livers contain more bacteria than normal
livers do; however, normal livers contain similar
species of microflora. Development of telangiectasia
could not be linked to an infectious process. The finding
of E coli O157:H7 in bovine livers suggests that
information regarding bacterial content of other offal
and muscle may identify sources of this and other
potential foodborne pathogens and assist in establishing
critical control points for the meat industry. (J
Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:36–39)