Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 9 of 9 items for

  • Author or Editor: John F. Anderson x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Summary

Multiple blood samples were obtained from privately owned dogs living in tick-infested areas of New York (Westchester County) and Connecticut, where Lyme disease in human beings has been reported. Of the 175 dogs examined, 127 (72.6%) had limb/joint disorder, whereas the remaining 48 dogs were considered healthy. Results of analysis of 419 serum samples revealed IgM antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi in healthy and lame dogs during all seasons. Prevalence of seropositivity was significantly (P < 0.01) greater, using a polyvalent elisa (89.5%) than using a class-specific elisa for IgM antibody (57.8%). Mean antibody titers obtained by use of polyvalent elisa were likewise higher than IgM titers. Analysis of paired serum samples from dogs with limb/joint disorder indicated that 118 (92.9%) remained positive for IgM or IgG antibodies when retested weeks or months after initial testing. In 48 dogs without history of joint involvement or other signs of disease, 43 (89.6%) had antibody to B burgdorferi 2 or more times. Serotest results also revealed little or no change in antibody titer for lame dogs given antibiotics or for healthy dogs 2 or more months after initial sample collection.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Medical records of 6 Vietnamese pot-bellied pigs with articular fractures of the distal portion of the humerus were reviewed. Evaluation of the medical records did not reveal a sex predilection. All fractures were associated with minor traumatic episodes in young pigs. Of 6 fractures involving the humeral condyle, 4 involved the medial portion, 1 involved the lateral portion, and 1 was a Y-shaped fracture. Five of the pigs underwent surgical repair of the fracture, and all 5 did not have signs of lameness at follow-up evaluations (mean, 11 months). Of 4 pigs that had follow-up radiography, all had evidence of mild to moderate degenerative joint disease. Articular fractures of the distal portion of the humerus should be considered as a differential diagnosis in all Vietnamese pot-bellied pigs with forelimb lameness, even if the trauma sustained appeared mild. Surgical repair in Vietnamese pot-bellied pigs is straightforward, and excellent clinical results can be expected.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Ticks were removed from naturally infested cats, and serum samples from these cats were tested for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi. Twenty-two of 93 cats (23.7%) had one or more motile stages of Ixodes dammini attached. Of 2 larvae and 20 nymphs removed from cats, 1 larva and 2 nymphs were infected with B burgdorferi. Spirochetes were not found in tissues of 13 female and 4 male ticks. Ten of 71 serum samples analyzed by indirect fluorescent antibody staining or elisa contained antibodies to this spirochete. Maximal antibody titers were 1:256 and 1:2,560, respectively. At titers ≥1:160 in elisa, seropositivity ranged from 8.8% (n = 34 sera tested from 34 cats) in May through July to 33.3% (n = l2 cats tested) during February through April. In clinical studies of 30 cats, there were nearly equal percentages of seropositive cats with limb or joint disorders not accompanied by fever, anorexia, or fatigue (5 of 21 cats) and cats with these signs of illness but lacking lameness (2 of 9 cats.)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine whether dogs living in tick-infested areas of the northeastern United States had been exposed to Ehrlichia equi, an etiologic agent of granulocytic ehrlichiosis.

Design

Analyses of dog sera.

Animals

106 ill dogs and 12 clinically normal dogs.

Procedure

Antibodies to E equi were detected by indirect fluorescent antibody staining methods and western blot analyses.

Results

10 of 106 (9.4%) sera tested from ill, privately owned dogs living in tick-infested areas of Connecticut and New York state had antibodies to E equi, a member of the E phagocytophila genogroup. Titration end points ranged from 1:80 to 1:1,280. Immunoblots revealed antibodies to proteins of E equi having molecular masses of predominantly 29, 40, 44, 105, 120, and 160 kd. There was good agreement between results of serologic testing methods, but use of the human isolate (NCH-1 strain) in western blot analyses detected 2 additional seropositive dogs found to be negative by indirect fluorescent antibody staining methods with the MRK strain.

Clinical Implications

Dogs living in areas where Ixodes scapularis is abundant may be exposed to multiple pathogens, such as E equi or Borrelia burgdorferi. Although mild or subclinical infections with E equi may develop, dogs with marked leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, or anemia should be viewed as possibly having ehrlichiosis. Laboratory diagnosis should include examinations for morulae in granulocytes or monocytes in addition to serologic analyses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1134–1137)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Eight dogs were determined to be orthopedically normal on the basis of prelavage physical examination, stifle radiography, synovial fluid analysis, and force plate analysis (peak vertical force normalized for body weight, and time on the force plate). Each dog had 1 stifle randomly assigned to be lavaged with 100 ml of a commercially available 0.05% (w/v) chlorhexidine diacetate solution, and the contralateral stifle was lavaged with lactated Ringer’s solution.

Difference was not detected between the chlorhexidine diacetate and lactated Ringer’s solution-treated joints, with regard to results of synovial fluid analysis and clinical lameness evaluations on days 4 and 8 after lavage. Chlorhexidine diacetate caused a more intense synovitis than did lactated Ringer’s solution, as determined by histologic evaluation of synovial membrane specimens after necropsy on day 8; however, a difference in the intensity of toluidine blue staining of articular cartilage was not found between treatments. Chlorhexidine diacetate, as a 0.05% (w/v) solution, cannot be recommended as a joint lavage fluid until the duration of inflammatory changes in the synovial membrane are determined or until the chemical constituents of chlorhexidine diacetate causing the synovitis can be identified and removed.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 6-month-old sexually intact male Clumber Spaniel was evaluated because of small stature, recurrent dermatitis of the head, and progressive pigmentary hepatopathy.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Clinicopathologic findings included nonanemic hypochromic microcytosis, hypocholesterolemia, persistently high serum liver enzyme activities, and anicteric hyperbilirubinemia. Histologic examination of liver biopsy specimens collected when the dog was 6 months and 2 years of age revealed expansion and bridging of portal tracts, occasional centrilobular parenchymal collapse, scattered lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, and dark red to brown pigment within large aggregates of macrophages, engorged bile canaliculi, and hepatocytes. The pigment failed to stain for the presence of iron, copper, bile, and glycoprotein and, when examined with polarized microscopy, emitted a yellow to green birefringence with occasional Maltese cross configurations. Further analyses confirmed marked porphyrin accumulation in blood, urine, feces, and liver tissue; protoporphyrin accumulation in RBCs and liver tissue; and a signature porphyrin profile and fluorescence peak consistent with erythropoietic protoporphyria. Advanced protoporphyric hepatopathy was diagnosed. The chronic dermatopathy was presumed to reflect protoporphyric photosensitivity.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Management was focused on avoiding conditions known to induce heme synthesis and catabolism, administrating ursodeoxycholic acid and antioxidants S-adenosylmethionine and vitamin E, and avoiding sunlight exposure. At follow-up at 4 years of age, the dog was stable without evidence of jaundice but with probable persistent erythropoietic protoporphyria–related solar dermatopathy.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Clinical and histologic features of congenital erythropoietic protoporphyria and resultant protoporphyric hepatopathy, the diagnosis, and the successful management of a dog with these conditions over 4 years were described. Veterinarians should consider porphyric syndromes when unusual pigmentary hepatopathies are encountered.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine elution characteristics of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 from a polycaprolactone coating applied to orthopedic implants and determine effects of this coating on osseointegration.

Animals—6 sheep.

Procedures—An in vitro study was conducted to determine BMP-2 elution from polycaprolactone-coated implants. An in vivo study was conducted to determine the effects on osseointegration when the polycaprolactone with BMP-2 coating was applied to bone screws. Osseointegration was assessed via radiography, measurement of peak removal torque and bone mineral density, and histomorphometric analysis. Physiologic response was assessed by measuring serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activity and uptake of bone markers.

Results—Mean ± SD elution on day 1 of the in vitro study was 263 ± 152 pg/d, which then maintained a plateau at 59.8 ± 29.1 pg/d. Mean peak removal torque for screws coated with polycalprolactone and BMP-2 (0.91 ± 0.65 dN·m) and screws coated with polycaprolactone alone (0.97 ± 1.30 dN·m) did not differ significantly from that for the control screws (2.34 ± 1.62 dN·m). Mean bone mineral densities were 0.535 ± 0.060 g/cm2, 0.596 ± 0.093 g/cm2, and 0.524 ± 0.142 g/cm2 for the polycaprolactone–BMP-2–coated, polycaprolactone-coated, and control screws, respectively, and did not differ significantly among groups. Histologically, bone was in closer apposition to the implant with the control screws than with either of the coated screws.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—BMP-2 within the polycaprolactone coating did not stimulate osteogenesis. The polycaprolactone coating appeared to cause a barrier effect that prevented formation of new bone. A longer period or use of another carrier polymer may result in increased osseointegration.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research