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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

A 4-year-old 25.5-kg (56.1-lb) spayed female mixed-breed dog was admitted to a veterinary medical teaching hospital for corrective closed-wedge osteotomy of the left femur and a left tibial tuberosity transposition. At the time of admission, the dog was alert, responsive, and ambulatory other than mild left hind limb lameness. Cardiac auscultation revealed a left-sided grade 3/6 systolic cardiac murmur.

A complete cardiac workup had been performed 1 week prior to admission, and at that time, auscultation revealed that the dog had a left-sided grade 3/6 systolic ejection murmur near the heart base with an audible midsystolic click. Echocardiography revealed that

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare morphometric measurements and serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) concentration in cats with and without hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and assess the hypothesis that cats with HCM have larger body size and skeletal features and higher serum IGF-1 concentrations than healthy cats.

Animals—25 cats with HCM and 22 healthy control cats.

Procedures—Physical examination and echocardiography were performed to classify cats into the HCM and control groups. Data collected from each cat included diet history, body weight, body condition score, lengths of the humerus and 4th and 12th thoracic vertebrae, heart size, head length and width, and abdominal circumferences. Comparisons of these variables were made between groups.

Results—Body condition score in HCM-affected and control cats did not differ significantly. However, median head width; lengths of the head, 4th and 12th thoracic vertebrae, and humerus; and body weight in the HCM-affected group were significantly greater than values in the control group. Median serum concentration of IGF-1 was not significantly different between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These data suggested that among the study cats, those with HCM were skeletally larger, but not more obese, than healthy cats. Whether this was attributable to differences in early growth or other causes requires additional investigation.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

A 6-year-old 5.25-kg (11.6-lb) castrated male domestic shorthair cat was referred to the Tufts Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine Emergency Service for management of thromboembolism in the distal portion of the aorta. The cat had no history of important medical problems.

On initial evaluation, the cat was bright, alert, and responsive. Body temperature (measured by use of an aural thermometer) was 39.7°C (103.5°F). The heart rate was 180 beats/min with an intermittent cardiac gallop. A grade 2/6 left parasternal systolic murmur was ausculted. The cat was eupneic (respiratory rate, 36 breaths/min), and auscultation of the lungs revealed no abnormalities. Paraplegia

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION 2 dogs with chylothorax were identified to have cardiac mass lesions obstructing the return of venous blood from the cranial vena cava. Chylous effusion was presumed to have been a result of an increase in cranial vena cava pressure affecting flow of chyle through the thoracic duct.

CLINICAL FINDINGS Both dogs had tachypnea and pleural effusion requiring therapeutic thoracocentesis. Fluid analysis confirmed chylothorax. A heart-base mass was identified via echocardiography in each dog, and CT-angiographic findings confirmed obstruction to venous return in the cranial vena cava in both dogs and compression of the pulmonary artery in 1 dog.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Each dog was anesthetized, and self-expanding endovascular stents were placed with fluoroscopic guidance. In both dogs, the site of stent placement was the cranial vena cava, and in 1 dog, an additional stent was positioned in the pulmonary artery. Chylous effusion resolved successfully in both dogs after surgery, with postoperative survival times exceeding 6 months. Complications included periprocedural arrhythmias in both dogs and eventual obstruction of the stent with tumor extension and fluid reaccumulation in 1 dog.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Endovascular stent placement may provide a useful palliative treatment for chylothorax secondary to vascular compression by a heart-base mass in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and serum vitamin E concentrations in dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) and healthy control dogs.

Sample Population—Serum and plasma samples from 36 dogs with IMHA and 40 healthy control dogs.

Procedure—Blood samples were collected from all study dogs. Plasma MDA concentrations were measured by use of a commercial colorimetric assay, and serum vitamin E concentrations (α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol concentrations) were measured via high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results—Plasma MDA concentrations were significantly higher in the dogs with IMHA than in the control dogs. Compared with control dogs, serum α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol concentrations were significantly lower in the IMHA-affected dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated a state of oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant reserve in dogs with IMHA; this finding provides support for further investigation of the potential benefits of antioxidant treatment in dogs with this disease. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1621–1624)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare myocardial concentrations of fatty acids in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) with concentrations in control dogs.

Sample Population—Myocardial tissues from 7 dogs with DCM and 16 control dogs.

Procedure—Myocardial tissues were homogenized, and total fatty acids were extracted and converted to methyl esters. Myocardial concentrations of fatty acids were analyzed by use of gas chromatography and reported as corrected percentages.

Results—The amount of docosatetraenoic acid (C22:4 n-6) was significantly higher in myocardial samples from dogs with DCM (range, 0.223% to 0.774%; median, 0.451%), compared with the amount in samples obtained from control dogs (range, 0.166% to 0.621%; median, 0.280%). There were no significant differences between DCM and control dogs for concentrations of any other myocardial fatty acids.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although concentrations of most myocardial fatty acids did not differ significantly between dogs with DCM and control dogs, the concentration of docosatetraenoic acid was significantly higher in dogs with DCM. Additional investigation in a larger population is warranted to determine whether this is a primary or secondary effect of the underlying disease and whether alterations in fatty acids may be a target for intervention in dogs with DCM. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1483–1486)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To develop and evaluate a questionnaire (functional evaluation of cardiac health [FETCH] questionnaire) for assessing health-related quality of life in dogs with cardiac disease.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—360 dogs with cardiac disease.

Procedure—The questionnaire was developed on the basis of widely accepted clinical signs of cardiac disease in dogs. A FETCH score was calculated by summing responses to questionnaire items; possible scores ranged from 0 to 85. For questionnaire validation, owners of 60 dogs were asked to complete the questionnaire and provide an overall assessment of their dogs' quality of life (16 owners completed the questionnaire twice). Disease severity was assessed with the International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council (ISACHC) classification for cardiac disease. Following validation, the final questionnaire was administered to owners of the remaining 300 dogs.

Results—Internal consistency of the questionnaire was good, and the FETCH score was significantly correlated with the owner-reported quality-of-life score and with ISACHC classification. For owners that completed the questionnaire twice, scores were significantly correlated. During the second phase of the study, the FETCH score ranged from 0 to 70 (median, 7) and was significantly correlated with ISACHC classification, but did not vary significantly with underlying disease. For dogs examined twice, the change in FETCH score was significantly greater for dogs in which ISACHC classification improved than for dogs in which ISACHC classification was unchanged.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the FETCH questionnaire is a valid and reliable method for assessing health-related quality of life in dogs with cardiac disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1864–1868)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical characteristics of dogs that received massive transfusion and identify the underlying diseases, complications, and outcomes.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—15 dogs.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs receiving a massive blood transfusion were evaluated for transfusion volume, underlying disease process or injury, benefits and complications of transfusion, and outcome. A massive transfusion was defined as transfusion of a volume of blood products in excess of the patient's estimated blood volume (90 ml/kg [40 ml/lb]) in a 24-hour period or transfusion of a volume of blood products in excess of half the patient's estimated blood volume in a 3-hour period.

Results—Six dogs had intra-abdominal neoplasia resulting in hemoabdomen, 3 had suffered a traumatic incident resulting in hemoabdomen, and 6 had nontraumatic, non-neoplastic blood loss. Mean volumes of packed RBC and fresh-frozen plasma administered were 66.5 ml/kg (30 ml/lb) and 22.2 ml/kg (10 ml/lb), respectively. All dogs evaluated developed low ionized calcium concentrations and thrombocytopenia. Transfusion reactions were recognized in 6 dogs. Four dogs survived to hospital discharge.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that massive transfusion is possible and potentially successful in dogs. Predictable changes in electrolyte concentrations and platelet count develop. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1664–1669)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine nutrient intake and dietary patterns in cats with cardiac disease.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—95 cats with congenital cardiac disease or primary cardiomyopathy.

Procedures—Owners completed a standardized telephone questionnaire regarding their cat's diet and a 24-hour food recall to determine daily intake of calories, fat, protein, sodium, magnesium, and potassium.

Results—Of the 95 cats, 18 (19%) had a history of congestive heart failure and 73 (77%) had no clinical signs of cardiac disease. Fifty-five percent (52/95) of cats had concurrent disease. Inappetance was reported in 38% (36/95) of all cats and in 72% (68/95) of cats with a history of congestive heart failure. Most (57% [54/95]) cats received treats or table scraps on a regular basis. Approximately half the cats were receiving orally administered medications, supplements, or both. Only 34% (32/68) of owners used food to administer medications to cats. Cats consumed more than the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) minimums for protein, sodium, potassium, and magnesium, and nearly all cats consumed more than the AAFCO minimum for fat. Daily nutrient intake was variable for all of the nutrients assessed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dietary intake in cats with cardiac disease was variable, but results for dietary supplement use, food use for medication administration, and treat feeding were different from those found in a similar study of dogs with cardiac disease. This information may be useful for treating and designing nutritional studies for cats with cardiac disease.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association