Objective—To compare the analgesic and anti-inflammatory
effect of single doses of carprofen, etodolac,
meloxicam, and butorphanol in dogs with induced
acute synovitis (acute pain model) via kinetic gait
analysis and orthopedic evaluation and examine measurement
of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration
as an indicator of treatment efficacy.
Animals—12 Beagles and 6 additional Beagles that
were used only in serum CRP analyses.
Procedure—Acute synovitis was induced in right stifle
joints of dogs via intra-articular injection of
monosodium urate solution. Treatments included
butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg, IV), carprofen (4 mg/kg, PO),
etodolac (17 mg/kg, PO), or meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg,
PO); control dogs received no treatment. The procedure
was repeated (3-week intervals) until all dogs
received all treatments including control treatment.
Lameness was assessed on a biomechanical force
platform and via orthopedic evaluations of the stifle
joints; blood was collected to monitor serum CRP
Results—Compared with control dogs, treated dogs
had significantly different vertical ground reaction
forces and weight-bearing scores. Greatest improvement
in lameness was observed in carprofen-treated
dogs. Etodolac had the fastest onset of action.
Compared with butorphanol treatment, only carprofen
and etodolac were associated with significantly
lower pain scores. An increase in serum CRP concentration
was detected after intra-articular injection in all
dogs; this change was similar among groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Carprofen,
etodolac, and meloxicam had greater efficacy than
butorphanol in relief of acute pain. Carprofen was
most effective overall. In this acute pain model, serum
CRP analysis was not useful to assess drug efficacy.
(Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1429–1437)
Objective—To evaluate a model for atopic dermatitis
(AD) and to measure the effect of sensitization in
Beagles genetically predisposed to produce high
serum concentrations of allergen specific IgE.
Animals—22 laboratory Beagles.
Procedure—Seventeen dogs were sensitized from
birth to 3 allergens (recombinant birch pollen,
Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and D farinae).
Five nonsensitized dogs from the same litters served
as controls. Clinical scoring, regular intradermal testing,
measurement of serum concentrations of allergen-specific IgE, and collection of biopsy specimens
of skin at 23, 32, and 43 weeks of age were performed.
Serial tissue sections were stained for identification
of IgE+ cells, mast cells and their subtypes, T-cells,
Langerhans cells, and major histocompatibility
complex class-II+ cells. At the age of 15 months,
dogs were continuously exposed to 2 µg of mite allergen/
g of dust.
Results—Sensitized dogs had positive intradermal
test reactions and significantly higher serum concentrations
of allergen specific IgE, compared with nonsensitized
dogs. In sensitized and nonsensitized
dogs, a significantly higher number of mast cells was
found at predilection sites, compared with the control
biopsy site. The number of mast cells at predilection
sites increased with age. Sensitization significantly
increased the number of epidermal Langerhans cells
by 23 weeks of age. The number of epidermal
Langerhans cells significantly increased in nonsensitized
dogs by 32 weeks of age. Clinical scoring only
revealed mild transient erythema in some dogs.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Increases in concentrations of serum allergen-specific IgE and exposure to allergens is not
sufficient to induce clinical signs of AD in genetically
predisposed dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1329–1336)
Objective—To evaluate the origin and degree of activity
of nitric oxide (NO) and matrix metalloproteinase
(MMP) in explants of cranial cruciate ligaments (CCLs)
obtained from dogs and cultured with and without
Sample Population—Tissue specimens obtained
from 7 healthy adult Beagles that were (mean ± SD)
4.5 ± 0.5 years old and weighed 12.5 ± 0.8 kg.
Procedure—The CCLs were harvested immediately
after dogs were euthanatized, and specimens were
submitted for explant culture. Cultures were stimulated
by incubation with a combination of interluekin-1,
tumor necrosis factor-α, and lipopolysaccharide, or
they were not stimulated. Culture supernatants were
examined for production of NO nitrite-nitrate metabolites
(NOts) and activity of MMP. Cultured specimens
were evaluated by use of immunohistochemical
analysis to detect activity of inducible NO synthase
Results—All ligament explants produced measurable
amounts of NOts. Stimulated cultures produced significantly
more NOts after incubation for 24 and 48
hours, compared with nonstimulated cultures.
Production of MMP in supernatants after incubation
for 48 hours was significantly higher in stimulated cultures
than in nonstimulated cultures. Cells with positive
staining for iNOS were detected on all slides.
Positively stained cells were predominantly chondroid
metaplastic. There was a significant difference in
intensity of cell staining between stimulated and nonstimulated
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Explant cultures
of intact CCLs obtained from dogs produce
iNOS-induced NO. Stimulation of chondroid metaplastic
cells in CCL of dogs by use of inflammatory
activators can increase production of iNOS, NOts, and
MMP. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1423–1428)