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  • Author or Editor: John E. Peel x
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Abstract

Objective—To compare the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of single doses of carprofen, etodolac, meloxicam, and butorphanol in dogs with induced acute synovitis (acute pain model) via kinetic gait analysis and orthopedic evaluation and examine measurement of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration as an indicator of treatment efficacy.

Animals—12 Beagles and 6 additional Beagles that were used only in serum CRP analyses.

Procedure—Acute synovitis was induced in right stifle joints of dogs via intra-articular injection of monosodium urate solution. Treatments included butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg, IV), carprofen (4 mg/kg, PO), etodolac (17 mg/kg, PO), or meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg, PO); control dogs received no treatment. The procedure was repeated (3-week intervals) until all dogs received all treatments including control treatment. Lameness was assessed on a biomechanical force platform and via orthopedic evaluations of the stifle joints; blood was collected to monitor serum CRP concentration.

Results—Compared with control dogs, treated dogs had significantly different vertical ground reaction forces and weight-bearing scores. Greatest improvement in lameness was observed in carprofen-treated dogs. Etodolac had the fastest onset of action. Compared with butorphanol treatment, only carprofen and etodolac were associated with significantly lower pain scores. An increase in serum CRP concentration was detected after intra-articular injection in all dogs; this change was similar among groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Carprofen, etodolac, and meloxicam had greater efficacy than butorphanol in relief of acute pain. Carprofen was most effective overall. In this acute pain model, serum CRP analysis was not useful to assess drug efficacy. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1429–1437)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate a model for atopic dermatitis (AD) and to measure the effect of sensitization in Beagles genetically predisposed to produce high serum concentrations of allergen specific IgE.

Animals—22 laboratory Beagles.

Procedure—Seventeen dogs were sensitized from birth to 3 allergens (recombinant birch pollen, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and D farinae). Five nonsensitized dogs from the same litters served as controls. Clinical scoring, regular intradermal testing, measurement of serum concentrations of allergen-specific IgE, and collection of biopsy specimens of skin at 23, 32, and 43 weeks of age were performed. Serial tissue sections were stained for identification of IgE+ cells, mast cells and their subtypes, T-cells, Langerhans cells, and major histocompatibility complex class-II+ cells. At the age of 15 months, dogs were continuously exposed to 2 µg of mite allergen/ g of dust.

Results—Sensitized dogs had positive intradermal test reactions and significantly higher serum concentrations of allergen specific IgE, compared with nonsensitized dogs. In sensitized and nonsensitized dogs, a significantly higher number of mast cells was found at predilection sites, compared with the control biopsy site. The number of mast cells at predilection sites increased with age. Sensitization significantly increased the number of epidermal Langerhans cells by 23 weeks of age. The number of epidermal Langerhans cells significantly increased in nonsensitized dogs by 32 weeks of age. Clinical scoring only revealed mild transient erythema in some dogs.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Increases in concentrations of serum allergen-specific IgE and exposure to allergens is not sufficient to induce clinical signs of AD in genetically predisposed dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1329–1336)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the origin and degree of activity of nitric oxide (NO) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in explants of cranial cruciate ligaments (CCLs) obtained from dogs and cultured with and without inflammatory activators.

Sample Population—Tissue specimens obtained from 7 healthy adult Beagles that were (mean ± SD) 4.5 ± 0.5 years old and weighed 12.5 ± 0.8 kg.

Procedure—The CCLs were harvested immediately after dogs were euthanatized, and specimens were submitted for explant culture. Cultures were stimulated by incubation with a combination of interluekin-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and lipopolysaccharide, or they were not stimulated. Culture supernatants were examined for production of NO nitrite-nitrate metabolites (NOts) and activity of MMP. Cultured specimens were evaluated by use of immunohistochemical analysis to detect activity of inducible NO synthase (iNOS).

Results—All ligament explants produced measurable amounts of NOts. Stimulated cultures produced significantly more NOts after incubation for 24 and 48 hours, compared with nonstimulated cultures. Production of MMP in supernatants after incubation for 48 hours was significantly higher in stimulated cultures than in nonstimulated cultures. Cells with positive staining for iNOS were detected on all slides. Positively stained cells were predominantly chondroid metaplastic. There was a significant difference in intensity of cell staining between stimulated and nonstimulated cultures.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Explant cultures of intact CCLs obtained from dogs produce iNOS-induced NO. Stimulation of chondroid metaplastic cells in CCL of dogs by use of inflammatory activators can increase production of iNOS, NOts, and MMP. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1423–1428)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research