Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of coumaphos,
an organophosphate (OP) acaricide, at concentrations
up to 2 times higher than the highest concentration
required by the US Eradication Program against all
stages of an OP-resistant strain of Boophilus
microplusin experimentally infested cattle.
Procedure—Four groups of cattle (4 calves/group)
were all infested with Boophilus ticks 3 times before
treatment. Each group was treated with coumaphos
as follows: group 1, at 0.165% active ingredient (AI);
group 2, at 0.299% AI; group 3, at 0.566% AI; and
group 4, not treated. Following treatment, ticks were
collected for 21 days. Ticks collected 1 to 7, 8 to 14,
and 15 to 21 days after treatment were considered
adults, nymphs, and larvae, respectively, at time of
Results—Overall control at 0.165, 0.299, and 0.566%
AI was 52.9, 75.8, and 89.7%, respectively. Control of
adults ranged from 4.3% at 0.165% AI to 73.5% at
0.566% AI. Control of nymphs ranged from 60.6% at
0.165% AI to 97.3% at 0.566% AI. Control of larvae
was > 98% at all coumaphos concentrations.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—All coumaphos
concentrations failed to provide acceptable control
for use in the US Eradication Program against OPresistant
ticks. Treatment was least effective against
adults and most effective against larvae. Even at
0.566% AI (2 times higher than required by the US
Eradication Program), ticks were not eradicated, placing
the United States at risk from dispersing cattle
harboring viable ticks to uninfested areas. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:684–689)
Objective—To evaluate the management of equids undergoing cryptorchidectomy at a referral hospital.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—604 client-owned equids.
Procedures—Medical records of all equids undergoing surgical treatment of cryptorchidism from 1977 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Analyses of breed, location of retained testes, accuracy of palpation per rectum for determining the location of retained testes, surgical technique, and postoperative complications were performed.
Results—The most frequently affected breed was the Quarter Horse (282/604 [47%]), which was significantly overrepresented. Of the 604 equids, 90 (15%) had undergone previous surgical attempts at castration. Preoperative palpation per rectum was performed in 395/604 (65.4%) patients, and was accurate in predicting the location of the retained testes in 354/395 (89.6%). Surgeons were significantly more likely to be incorrect in determining the location of the retained testis by means of palpation per rectum in patients that had undergone a prior attempt at castration. For equids with abdominal cryptorchidism (360/604 [59.6%]), the most common surgical technique was noninvasive cryptorchidectomy (298/360 [82.8%]). In unilateral cryptorchids (521/604 [86.3%]), the 2 most common sites were left abdominal (184/521 [35.3%]) and right inguinal (148/521 [28.4%]). For bilateral retention (80/604 [13.2%]), abdominal cryptorchidism was most common (48/80 [60%]). Fever was present in 138/324 (43%) equids on the first day after surgery. Postoperative fever was not significantly associated with any variables evaluated. Including postoperative (≤ 24 hours) fever, 150 of 604 (25%) patients developed postoperative complications. Excluding postoperative fever, 18 of 604 (3%) patients developed major postoperative complications; complications in 10 of 604 patients were deemed surgically related, and 3 of 604 patients died.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that cryptorchidectomy in equids performed with a variety of surgical approaches was associated with minimal postoperative complications. A history of previous attempts at castration decreased the ability to accurately predict the location of the retained testis.
Objective—To calculate the monthly incidence of
gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in a population of military
working dogs during a 5-year period and determine
whether there was an association with synoptic
Sample Population—Medical records of all military
working dogs housed at Lackland Air Force Base,Tex,
from Jan 1, 1993 to Dec 31, 1997.
Procedure—Confirmed cases of GDV were identified
from evaluation of medical records and used to calculate
incidence of GDV. Factor analysis of local climatologic
data was used to classify each day into 1 of 8
meteorologically homogeneous types of days for this
location. Occurrence of GDV was compared with frequency
of occurrence of synoptic climatologic days.
Results—48 cases of GDV were identified from
January 1993 through December 1997. Mean monthly
incidence was 2.5 cases/1,000 dogs at risk (range,
0 to 18.5 cases/1,000 dogs; median, 2.5 cases/1,000
dogs). A seasonal increase in incidence of GDV was
detected, because half of the episodes were during
November, December, and January. An association
with a specific synoptic climatologic day was not
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Seasonal fluctuations
in incidence of GDV may be associated with
external factors that precipitate physiologic changes
resulting in GDV. Although a specific cause-effect relationship
was not documented, clinicians must be alert
for the potential of seasonal variation in incidence of
GDV and accordingly heighten their index of suspicion
for the condition, particularly in populations of dogs
that are predisposed to development of GDV. (Am J
Vet Res 2002;63:47–52)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate 2- and 3-year-old and career race performance of Thoroughbred racehorse prospects with and without osteochondral fragmentation of the accessory carpal bone (ACB) identified on yearling presale radiographs.
DESIGN Retrospective, matched cohort study.
ANIMALS 47 nonlame Thoroughbreds with (exposed cohort) and 94 nonlame Thoroughbreds without (unexposed cohort) osteochondral fragmentation of ACB facture identified on yearling sales repository radiographs.
PROCEDURES Repository radiographic interpretation reports for September yearling sales of a large Kentucky auction house from 2005 through 2012 were reviewed, and race records were collected and analyzed. Race performance was compared between horses with and without ACB fracture chosen from the same sale to identify associations between racing performance and ACB fracture.
RESULTS No significant differences were identified between horses with or without ACB fracture in their incidence of starting a race as a 2- or 3-year-old and the number of races started, earnings, or earnings per start for 2- or 3-year-old or career race performance. There was no significant difference in performance between horses with or without concurrent carpal osteoarthritis, nor did performance differ between horses with ACB fracture alone and those with ACB fracture and other radiographic abnormalities found to be associated with poorer performance in previous studies.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE ACB fracture with or without carpal osteoarthritic changes identified on repository radiographs of Thoroughbred yearlings was not associated with poorer racing performance or lower likelihood of starting a race as a 2- or 3-year-old, compared with outcomes for unaffected horses.
Objective—To determine causes for discharge of military working dogs (MWDs) from service.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Records of all MWDs approved for discharge from December 2000 through November 2004 were evaluated for cause of discharge.
Results—23 dogs had been obtained through the Department of Defense breeding program but had failed to meet prepurchase or certification standards. The remaining 245 (120 German Shepherd Dogs, 100 Belgian Malinois, and 25 dogs of other breeds) had been purchased as adults or obtained through the breeding program and had passed prepurchase and certification standards. Eighty-five of the 245 (34.7%) adult dogs were 1 to < 5 years old at discharge, and 160 (65.3%) were ≥ 5 years old at discharge. The proportion of adult dogs < 5 years old at discharge that were German Shepherd Dogs (69.4%) was significantly greater than the proportion of adult dogs ≥ 5 years old at discharge that were German Shepherd Dogs (38.1%). Within the subgroup of dogs ≥ 5 years old at discharge, median age at discharge for the German Shepherd Dogs (8.59 years) was significantly less than median age at discharge for the Belgian Malinois (10.61 years). For adult dogs < 5 years old at discharge, the most common cause for discharge was behavioral problems (82.3%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that longevity of service for MWDs may be influenced by breed differences and that selection criteria should be evaluated to reduce behavior-related discharge from service.
To validate the use of a flow cytometric assay that uses 2‘,7‘-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) to measure reactive oxygen species in the erythrocytes of healthy dogs.
50 healthy adult dogs.
Erythrocytes were incubated with DCFH-DA or a vehicle control (dimethyl sulfoxide), then incubated with (stimulated) or without (unstimulated) hydrogen peroxide. The flow cytometric assay was evaluated for specificity with increasing concentrations of DCFH-DA and hydrogen peroxide, and a polynomial regression line was applied to determine optimal concentrations. For precision, samples were analyzed 5 consecutive times for determination of intra- and interassay variability. Stability of samples stored at 4°C for up to 48 hours after blood collection was determined with flow cytometric analysis. Coefficient of variation (CV) was considered acceptable at 20%. Baseline measurements were used to determine an expected range of median fluorescence intensity for unstimulated erythrocytes incubated with DCFH-DA.
Erythrocytes were successfully isolated, and stimulated samples demonstrated higher median fluorescence intensity, compared with unstimulated samples. The intra-assay CV was 11.9% and 8.9% and interassay CV was 11.9% and 9.1% for unstimulated and stimulated samples, respectively. Unstimulated samples were stable for up to 24 hours, whereas stimulated samples were stable for up to 48 hours.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Flow cytometry for the measurement of reactive oxygen species in the erythrocytes of healthy dogs by use of DCFH-DA had acceptable specificity, precision, and stability. Flow cytometry is a promising technique for evaluating intraerythrocytic oxidative stress for healthy dogs.
Objective—To determine the efficacy of florfenicol
for treatment of calves with naturally occurring infectious
bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK).
Design—Randomized controlled field trial.
Animals—63 beef calves and 80 dairy calves
between 4 and 12 months of age.
Procedure—Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3
treatment groups. Calves in the SC treatment group
received a single dose of florfenicol (40 mg/kg [18.2
mg/lb] of body weight), SC, on day 0. Calves in the IM
treatment group received florfenicol (20 mg/kg [9.1
mg/lb]), IM, on days 0 and 2. Calves in the control
group received injections of saline solution (0.9%
NaCl), IM, on days 0 and 2. Calves were reevaluated
every other day for 20 days after treatment.
Results—Corneal ulcers healed by day 20 in 48 of 49
(98%) calves treated with florfenicol IM, 39 of 42
(93%) calves treated with florfenicol SC, and 33 of 52
(63%) control calves.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Florfenicol
administered SC (1 dose) or IM (2 doses 48 hours
apart) was effective for treatment of calves with naturally
occurring IBK. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:
Objective—To evaluate the incidence of colic and risk factors for colic in equids hospitalized for ocular disease.
Design—Retrospective observational study.
Animals—337 equids (317 horses, 19 ponies, and 1 donkey) hospitalized for ocular disease.
Procedures—Medical records of equids hospitalized for > 24 hours for treatment of ocular disease between January 1997 and December 2008 were reviewed. Information from only the first hospitalization was used for equids that were hospitalized for ocular disease on more than 1 occasion. Information gathered included the signalment, the type of ocular lesion and the treatment administered, and any colic signs recorded during hospitalization as well as the severity, presumptive diagnosis, and treatment of the colic. Statistical analysis was used to identify any risk factors for colic in equids hospitalized for ocular disease.
Results—72 of 337 (21.4%) equids hospitalized for ocular disease had signs of colic during hospitalization. Most equids (59.7% [43/72]) had mild signs of colic, and most (87.5% [63/72]) were treated medically. Ten of 72 (13.9%) equids with colic had a cecal impaction. Risk factors for colic in equids hospitalized for ocular disease were age (0 to 1 year and ≥ 21 years) and an increased duration of hospitalization (≥ 8 days).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—There was a high incidence of colic in equids hospitalized with ocular disease in this study. Findings from this study may help identify equids at risk for development of colic and thereby help direct implementation of prophylactic measures.
OBJECTIVE To compare the incidence of intra-abdominal complications in dogs following resection and functional end-to-end stapled anastomosis (FEESA) versus anastomosis with an end-to-end sutured technique for treatment of enteric lesions.
PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs undergoing intestinal resection and anastomosis at 3 nonaffiliated private practice specialty centers were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative clinical variables, indication for surgery, surgical technique (sutured end-to-end anastomosis vs FEESA), and evidence of postoperative anastomosis site leakage (dehiscence) were recorded. Variables of interest were analyzed for associations with dehiscence.
RESULTS Dehiscence rates of sutured and stapled anastomoses were 12 of 93 (13%) and 4 of 87 (5%), respectively; odds of postoperative dehiscence were significantly lower for dogs with FEESAs than for dogs with sutured anastomoses (OR, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.09 to 0.94). Among dogs that underwent surgery for treatment of intestinal dehiscence after surgery at another facility, subsequent dehiscence developed in 3 of 5 with sutured anastomoses and 0 of 11 with stapled anastomoses. Dehiscence rates varied significantly among clinics. No other variable was associated with risk of dehiscence. Eleven of 16 dogs with dehiscence were euthanized without additional surgery. Impaction at the anastomosis site was identified months or years after surgery in 3 dogs (4 anastomosis sites) that had FEESAs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Odds for dehiscence were significantly greater for sutured end-to-end anastomoses than FEESAs, and dogs undergoing surgery for previous dehiscence were significantly more likely to experience a subsequent dehiscence with a sutured anastomosis. However, variability of procedure types and dehiscence rates among clinics suggested further research is needed to confirm these findings. Obstruction at the anastomosis site was identified as a potential long-term complication of FEESA.