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Summary

Cardiopulmonary effects of etomidate administration were studied in hypovolemic dogs. Baseline cardiopulmonary data were recorded from conscious dogs after instrumentation. Hypovolemia was induced by withdrawal of blood from dogs until mean arterial pressure of 60 mm of Hg was achieved. Blood pressure was maintained at 60 mm of Hg for 1 hour, by further removal or replacement of blood. One milligram of etomidate/kg of body weight was then administered iv to 7 dogs, and the cardiopulmonary effects were measured 3, 15, 30, and 60 minutes later. After blood withdrawal and prior to etomidate administration, heart rate, arterial oxygen tension, and oxygen utilization ratio increased. Compared with baseline values, the following variables were decreased: mean arterial pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary wedge pressure, cardiac index, oxygen delivery, mixed venous oxygen tension, mixed venous oxygen content, and arterial carbon dioxide tension. Three minutes after etomidate administration, central venous pressure, mixed venous and arterial carbon dioxide tension, and venous admixture increased, and heart rate, arterial and venous pH, and arterial oxygen tension decreased, compared with values measured immediately prior to etomidate administration. Fifteen minutes after etomidate injection, arterial pH and heart rate remained decreased. At 30 minutes, only heart rate was decreased, and at 60 minutes, mean arterial pressure was increased, compared with values measured before etomidate administration. Results of this study indicate that etomidate induces minimal changes in cardiopulmonary function when administered to hypovolemic dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Cardiopulmonary effects of halothane administration were studied in hypovolemic dogs. Baseline cardiopulmonary data were recorded from conscious dogs after instrumentation. Hypovolemia was induced by withdrawal of blood from dogs until mean arterial pressure of 60 mm of Hg was achieved. Blood pressure was maintained at 60 mm of Hg for 1 hour, by further removal or replacement of blood. Halothane was delivered by face mask, dogs were intubated, then halothane end-tidal concentration of 1.13 ± 0.02% was maintained, and cardiopulmonary effects were measured 3, 15, 30, and 60 minutes later. After blood withdrawal and prior to halothane administration, systemic vascular resistance index, oxygen extraction, and base deficit increased. Compared with baseline values, these variables were decreased: mean arterial pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary arterial occlusion pressure, cardiac index, oxygen delivery index, oxygen consumption index, mixed venous oxygen tension, mixed venous oxygen content, venous admixture, arterial bicarbonate concentration, and mixed venous pH. At all times after intubation, arterial and venous oxygen tensions and mixed venous carbon dioxide tensions were increased. Three minutes after intubation, base deficit and mixed venous carbon dioxide tension increased, and mean arterial pressure and arterial and venous pH decreased, compared with values measured immediately prior to halothane administration. Fifteen minutes after intubation, systemic vascular resistance index decreased and, at 15 and 30 minutes, mean arterial pressure and arterial and venous pH remained decreased. At 60 minutes, mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary arterial occlusion pressure were increased and mixed venous pH was decreased, compared with values measured before halothane administration. Results of this study indicated that induction of anesthesia with halothane and maintenance at an end-tidal halothane concentration of 1.13% induced significant changes in blood pressure, with minimal effects on cardiac output and pulmonary function, when administered to hypovolemic dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Cardiopulmonary effects of propofol were studied in hypovolemic dogs from completion of, until 1 hour after administration. Hypovolemia was induced by withdrawal of blood from dogs until mean arterial pressure of 60 mm of Hg was achieved. After stabilization at this pressure for 1 hour, 6 mg of propofol/kg of body weight was administered iv to 7 dogs, and cardiopulmonary effects were measured. After blood withdrawal and prior to propofol administration, oxygen utilization ratio increased, whereas mean arterial pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, cardiac index, oxygen delivery, mixed venous oxygen tension, and mixed venous oxygen content decreased from baseline. Three minutes after propofol administration, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, oxygen utilization ratio, venous admixture, and arterial and mixed venous carbon dioxide tensions increased, whereas mean arterial pressure, arterial oxygen tension, mixed venous oxygen content, arterial and mixed venous pH decreased from values measured prior to propofol administration. Fifteen minutes after propofol administration, mixed venous carbon dioxide tension was still increased; however by 30 minutes after propofol administration, all measurements had returned to values similar to those measured prior to propofol administration.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The cardiopulmonary effects of thiopental sodium were studied in hypovolemic dogs from completion of until 1 hour after administration of the drug. Hypovolemia was induced by withdrawal of blood from dogs until mean arterial pressure of 60 mm of Hg was achieved. After stabilization at this pressure for 1 hour, 8 mg of thiopental/kg of body weight was administered iv to 7 dogs, and cardiopulmonary effects were measured. After blood withdrawal and prior to thiopental administration, heart rate and oxygen utilization ratio increased, whereas mean arterial pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary wedge pressure, cardiac index, oxygen delivery, mixed venous oxygen tension, and mixed venous oxygen content decreased from baseline. Three minutes after thiopental administration, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, and mixed venous oxygen tension increased, whereas oxygen utilization ratio and arterial and mixed venous pH decreased from values measured prior to thiopental administration. Fifteen minutes after thiopental administration, heart rate was still increased; however by 60 minutes after thiopental administration, all measurements had returned to values similar to those obtained prior to thiopental administration.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research