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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare echocardiographic indices of myocardial strain with invasive measurements of left ventricular (LV) systolic function in anesthetized healthy dogs.

Animals—7 healthy dogs.

Procedures—In each anesthetized dog, preload and inotropic conditions were manipulated sequentially to induce 6 hemodynamic states; in each state, longitudinal, radial, and global strains and strain rate (SR), derived via 2-D speckle-tracking echocardiography, were evaluated along with conventional echocardiographic indices of LV function and maximum rate of rise (first derivative) of LV systolic pressure (LV+dp/dtmax). Catheter-derived and echocardiographic data were acquired simultaneously. Partial and semipartial correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the correlation between LV+dp/dtmax and each echocardiographic variable. Global longitudinal strain was compared with conventional echocardiographic indices via partial correlation analysis.

Results—All myocardial segments could be analyzed in all dogs. Significant semipartial correlations were identified between conventional echocardiographic strain indices and LV+dp/dtmax. Correlation coefficients for longitudinal deformation and global strain, segmental longitudinal strain, and segmental SR were −0.773, −0.562 to −0.786, and −0.777 to −0.875, respectively. Correlation coefficients for radial segments and strain or SR were 0.654 to 0.811 and 0.748 to 0.775, respectively. Correlation coefficients for traditional echocardiographic indices and LV+dp/dtmax (−0.586 to 0.821) and semipartial correlation coefficients for global strain and echocardiographic indices of LV systolic function (−0.656 [shortening fraction], −0.726 [shortening area], and −0.744 [ejection fraction]) were also significant.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that LV systolic function can be predicted by myocardial strain and SR derived via 2-D speckle-tracking echocardiographic analysis in anesthetized healthy dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare Doppler echocardiographic variables of left ventricular (LV) function with those obtained invasively via cardiac catheterization under a range of hemodynamic conditions.

Animals—7 healthy anesthetized cats (1 to 3 years of age).

Procedure—Cats were anesthetized and instrumented to measure the time constant of isovolumic relaxation (tau []), LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), peak negative and positive rate of change of LV pressure, arterial blood pressure, and cardiac output. Echocardiographic variables of diastolic function (isovolumic relaxation time [IVRT], early LV flow propagation velocity [Vp], transmitral and pulmonary venous flow velocity indices, and LV tissue Doppler imaging indices) were measured simultaneously over a range of hemodynamic states induced by treatments with esmolol, dobutamine, cilobradine, and volume loading. Correlation between invasive and noninvasive measures of LV filling was determined by univariate and multivariate regression analyses.

Results—Significant correlations were found between and IVRT, peak Vp, peak late transmitral flow velocity, and peak systolic pulmonary venous flow velocity. A significant correlation was found between LVEDP and early diastolic transmitral flow velocity (peak E) and the ratio of peak E to peak Vp, but not between LVEDP and peak Vp.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—IVRT and Vp can be used as noninvasive indices of LV relaxation; Vp was independent of preload and heart rate in this study. The E:Vp ratio may be useful as an indicator of LV filling pressure. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:93–103)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess the feasibility, describe the techniques, and determine the reliability of transthoracic echocardiography for characterization of left atrial (LA) size and LA mechanical function in horses.

Animals—6 healthy adult horses.

Procedures—Repeated echocardiographic examinations were performed independently by 2 observers in standing, unsedated horses by use of 2-dimensional echocardiography, pulsed-wave flow Doppler, and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) techniques. Test reliability was determined by estimating measurement variability, within-day interobserver variability, and between-day inter- and intraobserver variability of all echocardiographic variables. Variability was expressed as the coefficient of variation (CV) and the absolute value below which the difference between 2 measurements will lie with 95% probability.

Results—Most echocardiographic variables of LA size had low overall variability (CV, < 15%). Among the 2-dimensional indices of LA mechanical function, area-based and volume-based ejection phase indices had moderate between-day variability (CV usually < 25%). Transmitral Doppler flow indices were characterized by low to high between-day variability (CV, 6% to 35%). The TDI wall motion velocities had high between-day variability (CV, > 25%), whereas most TDI-derived time intervals had low variability (CV, < 15%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—LA size and mechanical function can be reliably assessed in standing, unsedated horses by use of 2-dimensional echocardiography, transmitral blood flow velocity profiles, and analyses of LA wall motion by use of TDI. These results may provide useful recommendations for echocardiographic assessment of LA size and function in horses.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine survival times in dogs with severe subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS) treated by means of balloon valvuloplasty or with atenolol, a β-adrenoceptor blocking drug.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—38 dogs < 24 months old with severe SAS (peak systolic pressure gradient ≥ 80 mm Hg).

Procedure—10 dogs underwent balloon valvuloplasty and were reexamined 6 weeks later to determine the feasibility of the procedure. The remaining 28 dogs were randomly assigned to undergo balloon valvuloplasty (n = 15) or to be treated with atenolol long term (13) and were reexamined annually for 9 years or until the time of death.

Results—For the first 10 dogs, mean pressure gradient 6 weeks after balloon valvuloplasty (mean ± SD, 119 ± 32.6 mm Hg) was significantly decreased, compared with mean baseline pressure gradient (167 ± 40.1 mm Hg). Median survival time for dogs that underwent balloon valvuloplasty (55 months) was not significantly different from median survival time for dogs treated with atenolol (56 months).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that balloon valvuloplasty can result in a significant decrease in the peak systolic pressure gradient in dogs with severe SAS, at least for the short term. No clear benefit in survival times was seen for dogs that underwent balloon valvuloplasty versus dogs that were treated with atenolol. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:420–424)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objectives—To quantify direction and velocity of blood flow in hepatic veins in dogs under different hemodynamic conditions by use of pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography.

Animals—10 healthy dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, and venous flow velocities in the quadrate lobe were measured. Arterial blood pressure, right atrial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, and cardiac output were measured simultaneously. The timing of each waveform during the cardiac cycle was used to identify velocity profiles. Peak waveform velocities were measured during conditions of light anesthesia with isoflurane (baseline; period 1), cardiovascular depression following administration of highdose isoflurane and esmolol IV (period 2), cardiovascular depression with crystalloid volume expansion (period 3), and high cardiac output induced with dobutamine (period 4). Hemodynamic measurements and maximum waveform velocities were compared among the 4 periods by use of an ANOVA and univariate and multivariate linear regression.

Results—During each study period, 4 distinct, lowvelocity waves were identified. Mean velocities recorded during period 1 were as follows: retrograde atrial contraction a-wave, 7.3 cm/s; antegrade systolic S-wave, 15.0 cm/s; retrograde venous return v-wave, 2.7 cm/s; and antegrade diastolic D-wave, 11.4 cm/s. Mean S:D ratio was 1.27. During periods 3 and 4, Swave velocity increased; D-wave velocity was highest during period 4.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Consistent hepatic venous velocity profiles were observed in healthy dogs under different hemodynamic conditions. These findings provide baseline values that may be useful in evaluating clinical cases, but further study involving healthy, awake dogs and dogs with cardiac and hepatic diseases is required. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:734–740)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Case Description—4 dogs with acquired pulmonary artery stenosis (PAS) were examined for various clinical signs. One was a mixed-breed dog with congenital valvular PAS that subsequently developed peripheral PAS, one was a Golden Retriever with pulmonary valve fibrosarcoma, one was a Pembroke Welsh Corgi in which the left pulmonary artery had inadvertently been ligated during surgery for correction of patent ductus arteriosus, and one was a Boston Terrier with a heart-base mass compressing the pulmonary arteries.

Clinical Findings—All 4 dogs were evaluated with 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography to characterize the nature and severity of the stenoses; other diagnostic tests were also performed.

Treatment and Outcome—The mixed-breed dog with valvular and peripheral PAS was euthanized, surgical resection of the pulmonic valve mass was performed in the Golden Retriever, corrective surgery was performed on the Pembroke Welsh Corgi with left pulmonary artery ligation, and the Boston Terrier with the heart-base mass was managed medically.

Clinical Relevance—Acquired PAS in dogs may manifest as a clinically silent heart murmur, syncope, or right-sided heart failure. The diagnosis is made on the basis of imaging findings, particularly results of 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. Treatment may include surgical, interventional, or medical modalities and is targeted at resolving the inciting cause.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION A 2.5-year-old 12-kg (26.4-lb) castrated male Miniature American Shepherd was referred because of a 3-week history of a localized crusted skin lesion on the digital pad of digit 3 of the right hind limb.

CLINICAL FINDINGS Skin lesions were noted on the digital pads of the right hind limb. Serum biochemical analyses indicated severe hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Ultrasonography of the terminal portion of the aorta and other major arterial vessels revealed substantial arteriosclerotic change.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Medical treatments included administration of atorvastatin calcium, a low-fat diet, and omega-3 fatty acids to reduce serum lipids concentration; clopidogrel to prevent thrombosis; pentoxifylline to improve microcirculatory blood flow; clomipramine hydrochloride and trazodone hydrochloride to help with the behavioral problems; and gabapentin to help with pain management and behavioral problems. Surgical management included amputation of the initial digit involved, then eventually the entire initial limb involved. The response to treatment was poor, and euthanasia was elected. Postmortem findings revealed severe, widespread, and chronic intimal atherosclerosis; mild, widespread, and degenerative changes in the cerebral cortex; and edema and vascular congestion in the meninges.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE To the authors' knowledge, this was the first report of skin necrosis secondary to atherosclerosis in a dog. Although the incidence of atherosclerosis has been considered very low in dogs, it should be investigated in dogs with severe hyperlipidemia. Primary hyperlipidemia has not been previously described in Miniature American Shepherd dogs but was the suspected underlying metabolic disorder.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the accuracy of a commercial ultrasonographic cardiac output (CO) monitoring system (UCOMS) in anesthetized Beagles as assessed by comparison with thermodilution CO (TDCO).

Animals—8 healthy anesthetized Beagles.

Procedures—Simultaneous UCOMS and TDCO measurements of CO were obtained during 4 hemodynamic states: baseline anesthesia (0.5% to 1.5% isoflurane), a higher depth of anesthesia (2% to 3.5% isoflurane) to yield a ≥ 15% reduction in systolic arterial blood pressure, IV infusion of colloidal solution to a mean right atrial pressure of ≥ 15 mm Hg, and IV infusion of dobutamine at 5 μg/kg/min. Measurements were obtained at 2 probe positions: the subxiphoid region and the right thoracic inlet. Correlation and agreement of results between methods were determined via linear regression analysis and Bland-Altman plots.

Results—A significant positive correlation was detected between UCOMS andTDCO measurements obtained at the subxiphoid (R = 0.86) and thoracic inlet (R = 0.83) positions. Bland-Altman plots revealed minimal bias between methods (bias ± SD, −0.03 ± 0.73 L/min and −0.20 ± 0.80 L/min for subxiphoid and thoracic inlet measurements, respectively). However, the percentage error associated with UCOMS measurements made at the 2 positions was > 45%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—When compared with the results of TDCO, CO measured with the UCOMS exceeded commonly accepted limits of error in healthy dogs. The UCOMS was, however, able to track changes in CO across hemodynamic states. Additional research is needed to assess the usefulness of the UCOMS for monitoring CO in critically ill dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research