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Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 2.5-month-old 17.5-kg female alpaca cria was presented for evaluation and treatment of severe bilateral carpal varus deformities.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

No lameness was evident at a walk, and neither carpal varus deformity could be corrected by means of manipulation. Radiography revealed severe varus of the left (27°) and right (21°) carpal regions. No additional conformational abnormalities were detected.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

A single 2.7-mm transphyseal cortical screw was placed in the distolateral aspect of the radius in each limb. On reexamination 8 weeks after screw placement, the left carpal varus deformity had corrected from 27° to 2.6°, and the left transphyseal screw was removed. The right carpal varus deformity had improved but was still present (18°), and hemicircumferential periosteal transection and elevation was performed on the mediodistal aspect of the right radius. Five weeks after the second surgery, the right carpal varus deformity had corrected to 2.4°, and the right transphyseal screw was removed. Six months after the second screw removal, both thoracic limbs remained straight, the cria had a normal gait, and the owner was happy with the cosmetic result.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Placement of a single transphyseal cortical screw with or without the addition of hemicircumferential periosteal transection and elevation can provide a favorable outcome in skeletally immature alpacas with severe carpal varus deformities.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

A novel technique and outcomes for correction of ununited anconeal process (UAP) via CT-guided cannulated lag screw placement in 7 canine patients is described.

ANIMALS

Cases of canine patients (7 patients/8 elbows) diagnosed with UAP that subsequently underwent CT-guided cannulated lag screw placement were retrospectively evaluated.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION

Pre- and postoperative exam findings (lameness and pain on range of motion) are presented. Preoperative radiographs and postoperative radiographs at 2 time points (approximately 8 weeks postoperatively and at the time of the most recent imaging; mean, 221 days; range, 85 to 828 days) were scored for degree of arthrosis and postoperative radiographs were evaluated for radiographic union. Complications were reported and stratified by severity and time postoperatively.

RESULTS

Minor perioperative (0 to 3 months postoperatively) complications included seroma formation (n = 1) and major perioperative complications involved development of surgical site infections (2), with 2 patients requiring implant removal in the perioperative period (44 and 82 days postoperatively). All patients achieved radiographic union, defined as partial or complete bridging of the anconeal process to the ulna within the study period (mean radiographic follow-up time 221 days postoperatively; range, 85 to 828 days; 5/8 joints partial bridging, 3/8 joints complete bridging) and pre- versus postoperative elbow arthrosis scores remained static in all patients.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The case outcomes described support the use of CT-guided cannulated lag screw placement as a feasible option for treatment of UAP.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Expiants were prepared from skeletal muscle tissue from 5 nondystrophic pups and from 5 pups with X-linked muscular dystrophy; pups were 2 to 17 weeks old. A serial reexplant method resulted in optimal cell density with minimal fibroblast growth. Cultures were examined daily by use of phase-contrast microscopy; differentiated (post-fusion) cultures were examined by electron microscopy. Moderate nuclear pleomorphism and cell clustering were observed in cultures of normal and dystrophic muscle cells. Cultures were maintained to 27 days after plating. Minimal myofilament synthesis was observed in multinucleate cells from nondystrophic and dystrophic pups, but spontaneous contraction of myotubes was not observed during this period. Differences in growth, fusion, or differentiation of myogenic cells into multinucleate cells and myotubes were not found between dystrophic and normal muscle.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To establish reference limits for hepatic bile duct-to-arteriole ratio (BD:A) and bile duct-to-portal tract ratio (BD:PT) in healthy cats and assess whether these parameters could be used to support a diagnosis of biliary ductopenia in cats.

SAMPLE Hepatic biopsy samples from healthy cats (n = 20) and cats with ductopenia (2).

PROCEDURES Hepatic biopsy samples from healthy cats were used to count the number of bile ducts and hepatic arterioles in 20 portal tracts for each cat. Mean BD:A and mean BD:PT for each cat were calculated, and these values were used to determine reference limits for mean BD:A and mean BD:PT. Results of histologic evaluation, including immunohistochemical staining in some instances, were compared for healthy cats versus cats with ductopenia.

RESULTS Of the 400 portal tracts from healthy cats, 382 (95.5%) and 396 (99.0%) had BD:A and BD:PT, respectively, ≥ 1.0, with less variability in BD:A. Mean BD:A and BD:PT were markedly lower in both cats with ductopenia, compared with values for healthy cats. However, only mean BD:A for cats with ductopenia was below the reference limit of 0.59.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that systematic evaluation of BD:A, with a lower reference limit of 0.59 to define biliary ductopenia in cats, may be a discrete and easily applied morphometric tool to enhance detection of ductopenia in cats. However, application of this ratio required evaluation of ≥ 20 portal tracts with cross-sectioned portal elements to determine a mean BD:A value.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare the incidence of intra-abdominal complications in dogs following resection and functional end-to-end stapled anastomosis (FEESA) versus anastomosis with an end-to-end sutured technique for treatment of enteric lesions.

DESIGN Multicenter, retrospective descriptive cohort study.

ANIMALS 180 dogs.

PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs undergoing intestinal resection and anastomosis at 3 nonaffiliated private practice specialty centers were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative clinical variables, indication for surgery, surgical technique (sutured end-to-end anastomosis vs FEESA), and evidence of postoperative anastomosis site leakage (dehiscence) were recorded. Variables of interest were analyzed for associations with dehiscence.

RESULTS Dehiscence rates of sutured and stapled anastomoses were 12 of 93 (13%) and 4 of 87 (5%), respectively; odds of postoperative dehiscence were significantly lower for dogs with FEESAs than for dogs with sutured anastomoses (OR, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.09 to 0.94). Among dogs that underwent surgery for treatment of intestinal dehiscence after surgery at another facility, subsequent dehiscence developed in 3 of 5 with sutured anastomoses and 0 of 11 with stapled anastomoses. Dehiscence rates varied significantly among clinics. No other variable was associated with risk of dehiscence. Eleven of 16 dogs with dehiscence were euthanized without additional surgery. Impaction at the anastomosis site was identified months or years after surgery in 3 dogs (4 anastomosis sites) that had FEESAs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Odds for dehiscence were significantly greater for sutured end-to-end anastomoses than FEESAs, and dogs undergoing surgery for previous dehiscence were significantly more likely to experience a subsequent dehiscence with a sutured anastomosis. However, variability of procedure types and dehiscence rates among clinics suggested further research is needed to confirm these findings. Obstruction at the anastomosis site was identified as a potential long-term complication of FEESA.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association