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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) that lack virus detectable in serum by use of the immunoperoxidase microtiter assay (IPMA) can transmit the virus to susceptible herdmates and determine prevalence of these cattle.

Design—Clinical trial and serologic survey.

Sample Population—2 cattle and 1,952 blood samples.

Procedure—A persistently infected cow in which virus could not be detected in serum was housed with a BVDV-seronegative steer. Blood and nasal swab specimens were tested via virus isolation and serum virus neutralization. Parallel WBC preparations and sera from blood samples of 1,952 adult cows were screened for BVDV by use of IPMA.

Results—The steer seroconverted to BVDV within 4 weeks of contact with the cow. Virus was detected in sera and WBC of 5 adult cows that were verified as persistently infected by retest 3 weeks later. Cattle persistently infected with BVDV in which virus could not be detected in both serum and WBC by use of IPMA were not found.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Cattle persistently infected with BVDV in which virus cannot be detected in serum by use of IPMA may serve as virus reservoirs for infecting susceptible cattle. Persistent infection was detected at a prevalence of 0.26%. Screening adult cattle by use of IPMA on serum samples appears to be a reliable means of detecting persistent infection with BVDV. Prevalence of cattle persistently infected with BVDV that have negative results of IPMA on serum is extremely low. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:629–631)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether viral involvement with platelets obtained from cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is associated with altered platelet function or decreased platelet counts.

Sample Population—Platelets obtained from 8 cattle PI with BVDV and 6 age-, sex-, and breed-matched uninfected control cattle.

Procedure—Manual platelet counts were determined, and platelet function was assessed through optical aggregometry by use of the aggregation agonists ADP and platelet-activating factor. Identification of BVDV in serum and preparations of purified platelets was determined by use of virus isolation tests.

Results—No significant difference in platelet counts was detected between cattle PI with BVDV and control cattle. In response to the aggregation agonists, maximum aggregation percentage and slope of the aggregation curve were not significantly different between cattle PI with BVDV and control cattle. We isolated BVDV from serum of all PI cattle and from purified platelets of 6 of 8 PI cattle, but BVDV was not isolated from serum or platelets of control cattle.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Isolation of BVDV from platelets in the peripheral circulation of cattle immunotolerant to BVDV does not result in altered platelet function or decreases in platelet counts. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1738–1742)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare degree of viremia and disease manifestations in calves with type-I and -II bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection.

Animals—16 calves.

Procedure—Colostrum-deprived calves obtained immediately after birth were assigned to 1 control and 3 treatment groups (4 calves/group). Calves in treatment groups were inoculated (day 0) by intranasal instillation of 107 median tissue culture infective dose BVDV 890 (type II), BVDV 7937 (type II), or BVDV TGAN (type I). Blood cell counts and virus isolation from serum and leukocytes were performed daily, whereas degree of viremia was determined immediately before and 4, 6, 8, and 12 days after inoculation. Calves were euthanatized on day 12, and pathologic, virologic, and immunohistochemical examinations were performed.

Results—Type-II BVDV 890 induced the highest degree of viremia, and type-I BVDV TGAN induced the lowest. Virus was isolated more frequently and for a longer duration in calves inoculated with BVDV 890. A parallel relationship between degree of viremia and rectal temperature and an inverse relationship between degree of viremia and blood cell counts was observed. Pathologic and immunohistochemical examinations revealed more pronounced lesions and more extensive distribution of viral antigen in calves inoculated with type-II BVDV.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Degree of viremia induced during BVDV infection is associated with severity of clinical disease. Isolates of BVDV that induce a high degree of viremia may be more capable of inducing clinical signs of disease. Strategies (eg, vaccination) that reduce viremia may control clinical signs of acute infection with BVDV. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1095–1103)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research