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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) that lack virus detectable in serum by use of the immunoperoxidase microtiter assay (IPMA) can transmit the virus to susceptible herdmates and determine prevalence of these cattle.

Design—Clinical trial and serologic survey.

Sample Population—2 cattle and 1,952 blood samples.

Procedure—A persistently infected cow in which virus could not be detected in serum was housed with a BVDV-seronegative steer. Blood and nasal swab specimens were tested via virus isolation and serum virus neutralization. Parallel WBC preparations and sera from blood samples of 1,952 adult cows were screened for BVDV by use of IPMA.

Results—The steer seroconverted to BVDV within 4 weeks of contact with the cow. Virus was detected in sera and WBC of 5 adult cows that were verified as persistently infected by retest 3 weeks later. Cattle persistently infected with BVDV in which virus could not be detected in both serum and WBC by use of IPMA were not found.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Cattle persistently infected with BVDV in which virus cannot be detected in serum by use of IPMA may serve as virus reservoirs for infecting susceptible cattle. Persistent infection was detected at a prevalence of 0.26%. Screening adult cattle by use of IPMA on serum samples appears to be a reliable means of detecting persistent infection with BVDV. Prevalence of cattle persistently infected with BVDV that have negative results of IPMA on serum is extremely low. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:629–631)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine the apparent molecular weight for 24 ruminant respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV) on the basis of differences in the electrophoretic mobility of the phosphoprotein (P protein).

Procedure

29 bovine RSV (BRSV), 20 of which were not previously tested, 3 ovine RSV, and 1 caprine RSV isolates were selected for determination of electrophoretic mobility of the P protein. Virus radiolabeled with [35S]methionine was immunoprecipitated with polyclonal antiserum to BRSV and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

Results

On the basis of apparent molecular size of the P protein, all isolates could be categorized into 2 electropherotypes, low molecular size of 36 kd and high molecular size of 38 kd. Twenty-three BRSV, the 3 ovine RSV, and 1 caprine RSV isolates had a high molecular size P protein; 6 BRSV isolates had a low molecular size P protein.

Conclusions

The apparent molecular size of the P protein of the ruminant RSV strains is greater than that of the human RSV subgroups, providing further evidence of their distinctiveness. Whether categorization of electrophoretic mobility of the P protein of BRSV underlies distinct antigenic subgroups, as it does in human RSV, requires further antigenic and genetic analysis.

Clinicai Relevance

Antigenic subgroups of ruminant RSV may have relevance in the development of new vaccines for control of the disease. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:478–481)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The toxicity of Riddell groundsel (Senecio riddellii) gavaged to calves at a known lethal rate was compared with the toxicity of riddelliine and riddelliine N-oxide, the pyrrolizidine alkaloids isolated from the plant, which were fed by intraruminal infusion. Doses of the alkaloids were adjusted to the amount determined to be in the plant and fed individually and in combination. The relative toxicosis in the calves was measured by clinical signs, serum enzyme changes, survival time to morbidity, and histologic changes.

Calves fed Senecio riddellii by gavage for 20 consecutive days to provide 45 mg of total pyrrolizidine alkaloids/kg of body weight/d developed clinical signs and serum enzyme changes typical of seneciosis, with 100% morbidity. However, calves receiving riddelliine at 4.5 mg/kg/d for 20 days had neither serum enzyme changes nor clinical signs of pyrrolizidine alkaloidosis. Calves treated with riddelliine N-oxide (40.5 mg/kg/d), and with riddelliine (4.5 mg/kg/d) and riddelliine N-oxide (40.5 mg/kg/d) in combination, had 100% morbidity, although the latter group had fewer liver lesions.

These results establish that the N-oxide form of the alkaloid alone is capable of inducing typical Senecio toxicosis in cattle and that the free base level of the plant cannot be considered to be the sole factor in assessing the toxicity of S riddellii.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether viral involvement with platelets obtained from cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is associated with altered platelet function or decreased platelet counts.

Sample Population—Platelets obtained from 8 cattle PI with BVDV and 6 age-, sex-, and breed-matched uninfected control cattle.

Procedure—Manual platelet counts were determined, and platelet function was assessed through optical aggregometry by use of the aggregation agonists ADP and platelet-activating factor. Identification of BVDV in serum and preparations of purified platelets was determined by use of virus isolation tests.

Results—No significant difference in platelet counts was detected between cattle PI with BVDV and control cattle. In response to the aggregation agonists, maximum aggregation percentage and slope of the aggregation curve were not significantly different between cattle PI with BVDV and control cattle. We isolated BVDV from serum of all PI cattle and from purified platelets of 6 of 8 PI cattle, but BVDV was not isolated from serum or platelets of control cattle.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Isolation of BVDV from platelets in the peripheral circulation of cattle immunotolerant to BVDV does not result in altered platelet function or decreases in platelet counts. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1738–1742)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To document age-related changes in the morphology of the endodontic system, reserve crown, and roots of equine mandibular cheek teeth.

Design

Equine mandibular cheek teeth from horses of various ages were compared, using radiography, x-ray computed tomography, and histologic examinations.

Sample Population

48 right hemi-mandibles from horses 2 to 9 years old.

Procedure

Hemi-mandibles were radiographed, imaged by computed tomographic reconstruction, and reformatted. Histologic examination was used to identify and correlate tissue types.

Results

Permanent mandibular cheek teeth of the horse, at the time of eruption, consisted of an exposed crown and a reserve crown with a widely dilated apex. The endodontic system consisted of 5 or 6 pulp horns that connected to an expansive pulp in the reserve crown, which was confluent with the primordial pulp bulb surrounding the tooth’s apex.

At the time of eruption, mandibular cheek teeth did not have a distinct pulp chamber, roots, or evidence of root formation. However, within 2 years after eruption, mesial and distal roots and a pulp chamber were present. A distinct pulp chamber, communicating with the pulp horns and both root pulp canals, was identifiable for 4 to 5 years from the time of root formation. The endodontic system of cheek teeth, 6 to 8 years after eruption, consisted of 2 unattached compartments, made up of a root canal, pulp chamber, and 2 or 3 pulp horns.

Clinical Relevance

The age-related morphologic changes in equine mandibular cheek teeth have important implications for application of endodontic therapy in horses. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:31-38)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Navicular bone intraosseous pressure, gross pathologic, histologic, and histochemical data were collected from 8 horses with navicular disease and 4 control horses. Simultaneous navicular bone intraosseous, medial palmar arterial, and saphenous venous pressures were measured for the left and right forelimbs of each horse under general anesthesia. Gross pathologic evaluation included grading of changes on the flexor surface of the navicular bone. Safranin-O-fast green-stained sections were used for histologic-histochemical grading of the hyaline articular and fibrocartilage surfaces of the navicular bones. Hematoxyhn and eosin-stained sections were used for morphologic evaluation of the marrow spaces of navicular bones. Mean navicular bone intraosseous pressure for horses with navicular disease was significantly (P< 0.001) higher than that for controls. Differences in medical palmar arterial or saphenous venous pressures were not significant between groups. The median flexor surface gross pathologic and histologic-histochemical fibrocartilage scores for horses with navicular disease were significantly (P< 0.001) more severe than those for control horses. The histologic-histochemical hyaline cartilage scores for control horses and those for horses with navicular disease were not significantly different. Fibrosis of the marrow spaces beneath the flexor cortex of horses with navicular disease was more pronounced than that of control horses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate platelet aggregation responses in calves experimentally infected with a thrombocytopenia-inducing type II bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolate (BVDV 890).

Animals

9 neonatal male Holstein calves.

Procedure

5 calves were inoculated with BVDV 890, and 4 were used as controls. Platelet aggregation studies and attempts to isolate BVDV from platelets were performed 2 days before, the day of, and every 2 days for 12 days after inoculation. Platelet function was assessed by means of optical aggregometry, using adenosine diphosphate and platelet-activating factor as agonists. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was isolated from purified platelet preparations by use of an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay.

Results

Maximum percentage aggregation and slope of the aggregation curve decreased over time in calves infected with BVDV. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was not isolated from platelets from control calves, but it was isolated from infected calves from 4 through 12 days after inoculation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Results suggest that platelet function may be depressed in calves infected with type II BVDV. Although the mechanism for altered platelet function was not determined, it likely involved an increase in the percentage of aged platelets in the circulation, a direct virus-platelet interaction, or an indirect virus-platelet interaction. Platelet dysfunction, in addition to thrombocytopenia, may contribute to the hemorrhagic syndrome associated with acute type II BVDV infection in calves. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1396–1401)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection causes severe lower respiratory tract disease in infants and calves. Neonatal respiratory tract infection in children often produces persistent changes in lung function. The specific objective of this study was to determine whether neonatal calves have transient or persistent alterations in pulmonary function and airway reactivity following rsv infection. Six 2- to 3-day-old Holstein bull calves were inoculated with 10 ml of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) inoculum (102.7 to 103.8 cell culture infective doses/ml) intranasally and 10 ml of brsv inoculum (104.8 to 105.9 cell culture infective doses/ml) intratracheally for 4 consecutive days, and 5 other calves were sham-inoculated. Prior to inoculation (day 0) and on days 4, 14, and 30 after the last inoculation, body weight (kg), dynamic compliance (Cdyn), pulmonary resistance (RL), and 2 indices of airway reactivity (effective dose [ed] 65Cdyn and ed 200RL) were measured. Control calves gained weight progressively throughout the study, whereas rsv-inoculated calves failed to gain weight for 14 days, but equaled control calf weight by 30 days after inoculation. The Cdyn of control calves increased significantly by 30 days, but did not in the rsv-infected calves. Pulmonary resistance was increased significantly at 4, 14, and 30 days, but was unaffected by sham inoculation. The ed 65Cdyn and ed 200RL indicated an age-dependent increase in reactivity to histamine and an increase in responsiveness in the infected group beginning at 14 days and persisting until the end of the study. The data indicate that brsv causes airway obstruction and hyperreactivity in neonatal calves, which persists for at least 30 days following viral exposure.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare degree of viremia and disease manifestations in calves with type-I and -II bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection.

Animals—16 calves.

Procedure—Colostrum-deprived calves obtained immediately after birth were assigned to 1 control and 3 treatment groups (4 calves/group). Calves in treatment groups were inoculated (day 0) by intranasal instillation of 107 median tissue culture infective dose BVDV 890 (type II), BVDV 7937 (type II), or BVDV TGAN (type I). Blood cell counts and virus isolation from serum and leukocytes were performed daily, whereas degree of viremia was determined immediately before and 4, 6, 8, and 12 days after inoculation. Calves were euthanatized on day 12, and pathologic, virologic, and immunohistochemical examinations were performed.

Results—Type-II BVDV 890 induced the highest degree of viremia, and type-I BVDV TGAN induced the lowest. Virus was isolated more frequently and for a longer duration in calves inoculated with BVDV 890. A parallel relationship between degree of viremia and rectal temperature and an inverse relationship between degree of viremia and blood cell counts was observed. Pathologic and immunohistochemical examinations revealed more pronounced lesions and more extensive distribution of viral antigen in calves inoculated with type-II BVDV.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Degree of viremia induced during BVDV infection is associated with severity of clinical disease. Isolates of BVDV that induce a high degree of viremia may be more capable of inducing clinical signs of disease. Strategies (eg, vaccination) that reduce viremia may control clinical signs of acute infection with BVDV. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1095–1103)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research