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Abstract

Objectives—To determine historical events leading to establishment of bovine tuberculosis in the white-tailed deer population in the northeastern corner of the lower peninsula (NELP) of Michigan and describe factors relevant to the present outbreak of bovine tuberculosis in Michigan.

Sample Population—Cattle and white-tailed deer in Michigan from 1920 to 1990.

Procedures—A search of extant historical documents (eg, scientific journals, books, public reports, and correspondence and internal reports from governmental agencies) was conducted. Factors investigated included the number of cattle and prevalence of tuberculosis, deer population and density levels, and changes in regional environments affecting the population and management of cattle and wild deer.

Results—High deer numbers and severe winter feed shortages resulting from habitat destruction in the NELP in 1930 contributed to the transmission of tuberculosis from cattle to deer. Starvation increased the susceptibility of deer to infection and modified behavior such that exposure to infected cattle was increased. Relocation of deer resulted in spread of infection to other sites, including locations at which spatial clusters of tuberculosis presently exist. Ribotyping of Mycobacterium bovis from a human patient suggests that the strain of M bovispresently infecting white-tailed deer in the region is the same strain that affected cattle farms at that time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Feeding deer to maintain numbers above the normal carrying capacity of the NELP led to deer depending on consumption of livestock feed for survival during winter and increased contact with domestic cattle. This practice should be avoided.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objectives

To evaluate outbreaks of disease attributable to eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) in horses in Michigan, and the associated environmental patterns and weather conditions, so that factors could be identified that may have predisposed horses in specific areas of the state to infections with EEEV.

Design

Epidemiologic retrospective records analysis.

Animals

Data on EEEV vectors, wild-bird reservoir hosts, and incidental hosts, including horses and human beings, obtained from census reports and medical records compiled between 1942 and 1991.

Procedure

Patterns detected during outbreaks of disease attributable to EEEV infections in horses were compared to associated water drainage patterns, distributions of EEEV vectors, wild-bird reservoir and incidental hosts, and weather conditions.

Results

Michigan has all of the elements required to sustain EEEV on a state-wide basis. Outbreaks of disease attributable to EEEV in horses have recurred in a similar regional distribution in Michigan. Regions of Michigan that have specific patterns for water drainage, specific mosquito species, and areas with higher than expected amounts of precipitation have been associated with outbreaks of disease attributable to EEEV in horses.

Clinical Implications

Evaluation of environmental patterns, weather conditions, and vector and reservoir host distributions may be useful to identify areas in Michigan and elsewhere in which horses and human beings are at increased risk for an outbreak of disease attributable to EEEV. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:1988-1997)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine prevalence of paratuberculosis among dairy cattle herds and to identify associated soil-related risk factors.

Sample Population

Serum and soil samples for 121 Michigan dairy herds.

Procedure

Blood samples were collected from cows at each farm and tested for Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, using an antibody ELISA. Soil samples were collected from pastures and exercise lots; pH and available iron content were determined. A questionnaire was administered to collect data regarding farm management practices and productivity.

Results

55% of the herds tested had ≥ 2 M paratuberculosis-positive cattle. Adjusting sample prevalence for distribution of herd size strata yielded a statewide herd prevalence of 54%. Of 3,886 cattle tested, 267 had positive results. Prevalence of test-positive cattle was 6.9%. For every part per million (ppm) increase in soil iron content, there was a 1.4% increase in the risk of a herd being test-positive. An increase in soil pH of 0.1 was associated with a 5% decrease and an increase in soil iron content of 10 ppm was associated with a 4% increase in the number of test-positive cattle. Application of lime to pasture areas was associated with a herd being only 10% as likely to be paratuberculosis positive and with a 72% reduction in number of test-positive cattle.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Prevalence of paratuberculosis-positive dairy herds in Michigan (54%) was greater than expected, but prevalence of paratuberculosis-positive cattle (6.9%) was within anticipated values. These prevalences were associated positively with acidic soil and increased soil iron content. Application of lime to pasture areas was associated with reduced risk of paratuberculosis. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:589–596)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A longitudinal study was conducted over 2 years to identify types of antibiotics and sulfonamides used in Michigan dairy herds for disease prevention and treatment, to determine patterns of use of antibiotics and sulfonamides by herd size and animal age group, and to determine the influence of veterinary presence during diagnosis on the types of antimicrobials used for disease treatments.

In order of frequency, the most commonly used preventive antibiotic and sulfonamides were penicillins, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, and cephalosporins, making up over 86% of all antimicrobials used for disease prevention. The most commonly used therapeutic antibiotics and sulfonamides were penicillins, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, and sulfonamides, making up over 81% of all antimicrobial drugs used for disease treatment. Cows received the greatest number of drugs, followed by calves (cattle from birth to weaning). Young stock (cattle from weaning to first calving) received the lowest number of drugs. All herds had similar patterns of drug use for the 3 age groups, regardless of herd size.

With the exception of polymyxin and chloramphenicol, producers used antibiotics on their own more than with a veterinarian present or on the advice of a veterinarian. Overall, veterinary presence was significantly associated with increased use of tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and nitrofurans, and decreased use of penicillins and aminoglycosides. Implications for drug residue prevention strategies are discussed, with emphasis on the role of the practicing veterinarian.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of heartworm infection among healthy, client-owned cats in the lower peninsula of Michigan.

Design—Cross-sectional prevalence study.

Animals—1,348 healthy cats examined at private veterinary practices throughout the lower peninsula of Michigan.

Procedure—Sera were tested by use of an ELISAbased antigen test kit to determine infection and 2 commercially available antibody detection kits to determine exposure. A questionnaire was used to collect data to assess risk factors associated with infection.

Results—25 cats had positive results for heartworm antigen, yielding an observed prevalence of 1.9%. Neither antibody test was reliable or provided reproducible results, and neither yielded positive results for more than 20% of the antigen-positive heartworminfected cats. Multivariate regression indicated that cats from southeastern Michigan and cats ≥ 2 years old had a higher risk of infection.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that most (80%) heartworm-infected cats in the lower peninsula of Michigan were from the southeastern part of the state, a pattern that closely paralleled the prevalence of heartworm infection in dogs. Therefore, knowledge of the regional prevalence of heartworm infection in dogs may be useful in assessing the risk of infection in cats. Results also suggested that currently available in-clinic heartworm antibody detection kits have limited utility in the diagnosis of heartworm infection in cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:857–861)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objectives

To determine attitudes of veterinarians, animal control directors, and county prosecutors in Michigan toward enforcement of state animal cruelty legislation and to identify factors associated with whether veterinarians would report suspected cases of animal cruelty.

Design

Survey.

Sample Population

Questionnaires were sent to 1,146 Michigan Veterinary Medical Association member veterinarians, 139 animal control directors, and 83 county prosecutors in Michigan.

Results

740 (65%) veterinarians, 70 (50%) animal control directors, and 43 (52%) prosecutors responded. Six hundred forty six of 735 (88%) veterinarians reported having treated an animal that they believed had been a victim of animal cruelty, but only 192 of 719 (27%) had ever reported a case of animal cruelty, and only 217 of 734 (30%) had ever testified in an animal cruelty case. Logistic regression analysis of responses revealed that the only factor associated with whether veterinarians would report cases of suspected animal cruelty was the potential reactions of the involved clients to the accusation of animal cruelty. Veterinarians who rated reaction of the involved client as important, very important, or essential to their decision whether to report a case of animal cruelty were less likely to report such cases than were veterinarians who rated potential client reaction as somewhat important or unimportant.

Clinical Implications

Concern about potential client reaction was the most important factor in whether veterinarians would report cases of suspected animal cruelty. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1521–1523)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association