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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe disorders of performance-age bucking bulls.

DESIGN Retrospective case-control study.

ANIMALS 78 bucking (cases) and 236 nonbucking (controls) beef bulls.

PROCEDURES The medical record database of a referral hospital was reviewed to identify beef bulls > 1 year old that were examined for a medical or musculoskeletal disorder between January 1, 2000, and April 1, 2014. Bucking bulls were designated as cases, and nonbucking bulls were designated as controls. For each bull, the signalment, history, physical examination and diagnostic test results, and clinical diagnosis were recorded. The frequency of each disorder was compared between cases and controls.

RESULTS Fifteen of 78 (19%) cases and 132 of 236 (56%) controls had medical disorders; however, the frequency did not differ between the 2 groups for any medical disorder. Musculoskeletal disorders were identified in 55 (70.5%) cases and 109 (46%) controls. Cases were 10.55 times as likely as controls to have horn and sinus disorders. Of the 43 (55%) cases examined because of lameness, the thoracic limb was affected in 19 (44%). Compared with controls, cases were 13.37 and 3.31 times as likely to have a musculoskeletal disorder of the vertebral region and pelvic limb, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated bucking bulls were more likely than nonbucking bulls to develop horn and sinus disorders and musculoskeletal disorders of the vertebral region and pelvic limbs. The limb distribution of lameness for bucking bulls may differ from that for nonbucking bulls.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of sedation achieved by xylazine (XYL) or acepromazine (ACE) on cardiopulmonary function and uterine blood flow in cows in late gestation.

Animals—8 cows between 219 and 241 days of gestation.

Procedure—Doses of ACE (0.02 mg/kg) or XYL (0.04 mg/kg) were administered IV. Measurements were obtained to determine cardiopulmonary effects and oxygen delivery to the uterus.

Results—Heart rate was not significantly affected by administration of ACE, but it decreased markedly after administration of XYL. Uterine artery flow was decreased at all times by XYL and was always less than for ACE. Xylazine increased uterine vascular resistance through 30 minutes and caused reduced PaO2 and increased PaCO2 at all time periods. Acepromazine caused a 5% decrease in PaO2 only at 5 minutes. Xylazine reduced oxygen delivery by 59% at 5 minutes and 32% at 45 minutes. In contrast, ACE caused a nonsignificant reduction of oxygen delivery by 16% at 15 minutes and a return to baseline values by 45 minutes

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Xylazine markedly reduces flow and availability of oxygenated blood to the uterus, which may critically impair delivery of oxygen to the fetus at a stressful and important time of development or delivery. Acepromazine was associated with slight reductions of much shorter duration. When XYL is used to sedate pregnant cows, it could impose physiologic distress on the fetus and potentially increase fetal morbidity and mortality. When sedation of the dam is desirable, ACE could be an alternative to XYL. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1695–1699)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine duration of administration, complications, and frequency of aortic thromboembolism associated with administration of low molecular weight heparin (dalteparin) in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—57 cats treated with dalteparin.

Procedure—Data were recorded from the medical records of cats treated with dalteparin, and owners were contacted by telephone for information regarding ease of administration and possible adverse effects.

Results—Dalteparin was easily administered by owners. Median dose was 99 U/kg (45 U/lb) once or twice daily. Bleeding complications were infrequent. Of 43 cats with cardiomyopathy that received owner-administered dalteparin for a median follow-up time of 172 days, 8 cats developed documented or possible arterial thromboembolism.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dalteparin was easily administered by owners and was well tolerated by cats. Whether dalteparin administration can reduce the frequency or severity of arterial thromboembolism is not yet known. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1237–1241)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of hydromorphone, hydromorphone and glycopyrrolate, medetomidine, and butorphanol premedication on the difficulty and time required to pass an endoscope into the stomach and duodenum of cats anesthetized with ketamine and isoflurane.

Design—Randomized complete block crossover study.

Animals—8 purpose-bred adult female cats.

Procedures—Each cat was premedicated and anesthetized 4 times with an interval of at least 7 days between procedures. Cats were premedicated with hydromorphone, hydromorphone and glycopyrrolate, medetomidine, or butorphanol administered IM. Twenty minutes after premedication, sedation was assessed by use of a subjective ordinal scale. Cats received ketamine administered IM, and 10 minutes later a cuffed orotracheal tube was placed and anesthesia maintained with isoflurane. Cats breathed spontaneously throughout the procedure. When end-tidal isoflurane concentration was stable at 1.4% for 15 minutes, endoscopy was begun. The times required to pass the endoscope through the cardiac and pyloric sphincters were recorded, and the difficulty of endoscope passage was scored by use of a subjective ordinal scale.

Results—No significant differences in difficulty or time required to pass the endoscope through the cardiac and pyloric sphincters were found among premedicant groups. Premedication with medetomidine resulted in the greatest degree of sedation and longest time to return to sternal recumbency.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that hydromorphone, hydromorphone and glycopyrrolate, medetomidine, and butorphanol at the doses tested can be used satisfactorily to premedicate cats prior to general anesthesia for gastroduodenoscopy. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:540–544)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate sevoflurane as an inhalation anesthetic for thoracotomy in horses.

Animals—18 horses between 2 and 15 years old.

Procedure—4 horses were used to develop surgical techniques and were euthanatized at the end of the procedure. The remaining 14 horses were selected, because they had an episode of bleeding from their lungs during strenuous exercise. General anesthesia was induced with xylazine (1.0 mg/kg of body weight, IV) followed by ketamine (2.0 mg/kg, IV). Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen delivered via a circle anesthetic breathing circuit. Ventilation was controlled to maintain PaCO2 at approximately 45 mm Hg. Neuromuscular blocking drugs (succinylcholine or atracurium) were administered to eliminate spontaneous breathing efforts and to facilitate surgery. Cardiovascular performance was monitored and supported as indicated.

Results—2 of the 14 horses not euthanatized died as a result of ventricular fibrillation. Mean (± SD) duration of anesthesia was 304.9 ± 64.1 minutes for horses that survived and 216.7 ± 85.5 minutes for horses that were euthanatized or died. Our subjective opinion was that sevoflurane afforded good control of anesthetic depth during induction, maintenance, and recovery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of sevoflurane together with neuromuscular blocking drugs provides stable and easily controllable anesthetic management of horses for elective thoracotomy and cardiac manipulation. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1430–1437)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research