OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) sterilization on the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of meropenem-impregnated polymethyl methacrylate (M-PMMA) beads.
SAMPLE 6-mm-diameter polymethyl methacrylate beads that were or were not impregnated with meropenem.
PROCEDURES Meropenem-free polymethyl methacrylate and M-PMMA beads were sterilized by use of an autoclave or VHP or remained unsterilized. To determine the antimicrobial efficacy of each bead-sterilization combination (treatment), Mueller-Hinton agar plates were inoculated with 1 of 6 common equine pathogens, and 1 bead from each treatment was applied to a sixth of each plate. The zone of bacterial inhibition for each treatment was measured after 24 hours. To estimate the duration of antimicrobial elution into a solid or liquid medium, 1 bead from each treatment was transferred every 24 hours to a new Staphylococcus aureus–inoculated agar plate or a tube with PBS solution, and an aliquot of the eluent from each tube was then applied to a paper disc on an S aureus–inoculated agar plate. All agar plates were incubated for 24 hours, and the zone of bacterial inhibition was measured for each treatment.
RESULTS In vitro antimicrobial efficacy of M-PMMA beads was retained following VHP sterilization. The duration of antimicrobial elution in solid and liquid media did not differ significantly between unsterilized and VHP-sterilized M-PMMA beads.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that M-PMMA beads retained in vitro antimicrobial activity and eluted the drug for up to 2 weeks after VHP sterilization.
Objective—To evaluate effects of butorphanol, acepromazine, and N-butylscopolammonium bromide (NBB) on visceral and somatic nociception and duodenal motility in conscious, healthy horses.
Animals—6 adult horses.
Procedures—Visceral nociception was evaluated by use of colorectal distention (CRD) and duodenal distention (DD) threshold. Somatic nociception was evaluated via thermal threshold (TT). Nose-to-ground height, heart rate, and respiratory rate were also measured. Each horse received each treatment in randomized order; investigators were not aware of treatments. Butorphanol was administered IV as a bolus (18 μg/kg) followed by constant rate infusion at 13 μg/kg/h for 2 hours, whereas acepromazine (0.04 mg/kg), NBB (0.3 mg/kg), and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (2 mL) were administered IV as a bolus followed by constant rate infusion with saline solution (10 mL/h) for 2 hours. Variables were measured before and for 3 hours after treatment. Data were analyzed by use of a 3-factor ANOVA followed by a Bonferroni t test for multiple comparisons.
Results—Nose-to-ground height decreased after acepromazine. Respiratory rate decreased after acepromazine and increased after butorphanol. Heart rate increased briefly after NBB. Some horses had an increase in TT after butorphanol and acepromazine, but there was not a significant treatment effect over time. Drug effect on DD or motility was not evident. The CRD threshold increased significantly at 5, 65, 155, and 185 minutes after acepromazine and from 5 to 65 minutes after NBB.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Each drug caused predictable changes in sedation and vital signs, but consistent anti-nociceptive effects were not evident.