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  • Author or Editor: Johanna C. Heseltine x
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Case Description—A dog was referred for treatment after ingestion of quick-dissolve chlorine granules intended for use in a swimming pool.

Clinical Findings—At evaluation 18 hours after ingestion of the granules, the dog had tachypnea, signs of depression, approximately 5% dehydration, oral mucositis, and a productive cough. Increased respiratory tract sounds and wheezes were ausculted in all lung fields. Complete blood count revealed erythrocytosis and lymphopenia. Serum biochemical analyses revealed mildly high activities of hepatic enzymes and creatine kinase. Arterial blood gas concentrations were consistent with hypoxemia and hyperventilation. Thoracic radiography revealed widespread pulmonary alveolar infiltrates predominantly affecting the ventral portions of both lungs, consistent with noncardiogenic pulmonary edema secondary to aspiration of the granulated chlorine.

Treatment and Outcome—Initial treatment included IV administration of an electrolyte solution with supplemental KCl, ranitidine, furosemide, cefotaxime, buprenorphine, and supplemental oxygen. Subsequent treatment included administration of meloxicam and an endoscopically placed percutaneous gastrostomy tube. Endoscopic examination revealed esophagitis and mild gastritis; therefore, metoclopramide and sucralfate were also administered. Fifteen days later, the gastrostomy tube was removed prior to discharge; endoscopic examination revealed grossly normal esophageal and gastric mucosa, and thoracic radiography revealed complete resolution of the lung lesions.

Clinical Relevance—Although ingestion of granulated chlorine is rare in veterinary patients, the resulting disease processes are common and can be treated successfully.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To develop a low-technology system that can be used by dog owners to obtain morphological and mobility measurements in companion dogs as candidate components of an eventual canine frailty scale.


57 adult (≥ 1-year-old) dogs enrolled by 43 owners.


Morphological measurements of dogs were performed by investigators and dog owners. Dogs participated in timed in-clinic mobility trials across a flat surface (on-leash trial with the owner, on-leash trial with the investigator, and off-leash trial) and on stairs; each trial was repeated 3 times. Owners were asked to conduct a second stair trial at home 2 weeks later. Agreement between owner- and investigator-obtained measurements was assessed with Shrout-Fleiss intraclass correlation coefficients and paired t tests. Age, quartile of projected percentage of mean life span attained (adjusted for body weight), and height were evaluated as predictors of speed and stride length in mobility trials with linear regression and Spearman rank correlation analysis.


Agreement between owner- and investigator-obtained morphological measurements was strong. Age was a weak but significant predictor of decreased dog speed in mobility trials (adjusted R 2, 0.10 to 0.23). Speed decreased significantly with increasing quartile of projected life span attained. A linear regression model that included height and age predicted dog speed better than models with age or height alone.


Morphological and mobility trial measurements can be obtained by dog owners with minimal training. Low-technology measurements of mobility trial speed offer potential as components in a future scoring scale for canine frailty.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research