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  • Author or Editor: Joel E. Wilson x
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Objective—To evaluate cyclooxygenase isozyme distribution in tissues from dogs and determine the differential sensitivity of canine cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 isozymes to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

Sample Population—Canine tissue samples (stomach, duodenum, ileum, jejunum, colon, spleen, cerebral cortex, lung, ovary, kidney, and liver) were obtained from 2 dogs for northern and western blot analyses, and blood for whole blood COX assays was obtained from 15 dogs.

Procedure—11 NSAIDs were evaluated to determine their COX-2 selectivity in whole blood assays. The concentrations of the drug needed to inhibit 50% of enzyme activity (IC50) were then calculated for comparison. Expression and tissue distribution of COX isozymes were determined by northern and western blot analysis.

Results—Aspirin, diclofenac, indomethacin, ketoprofen, meclofenamic acid, and piroxicam had little selectivity toward COX isozymes, whereas NS398, carprofen, tolfenamic acid, nimesulide, and etodolac had more than 5 times greater preference for inhibiting COX-2 than COX-1. All canine tissues examined, including those from the gastrointestinal tract, coexpressed COX-1 and -2 mRNA, although protein expression was observed only for COX-1.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Canine COX-2 was selectively inhibited by etodolac, nimesulide, and NS398; tolfenamic acid and carprofen also appeared to be preferential COX-2 inhibitors in dogs. The roles of COX-1 as a constitutive housekeeping enzyme and COX-2 as a proinflammatory inducible enzyme (as determined in humans) appear to apply to dogs; therefore, COX-2-selective inhibitors should prove useful in reducing the adverse effects associated with nonselective NSAIDs. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:810–818)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To assess the safety and efficacy of alcohol-facilitated ankylosis of the distal intertarsal (DIT) and tarsometatarsal (TMT) joints in horses with osteoarthritis (bone spavin).

Design—Prospective clinical trial.

Animals—21 horses with DIT or TMT joint-associated hind limb lameness and 5 nonlame horses.

Procedures—11 horses (group 1) underwent lameness, force-plate, and radiographic examinations; following intra-articular analgesia, lameness and force-plate examinations were repeated. Nonlame horses were used for force-plate data acquisition only. Following localization of lameness to the DIT and TMT joints, contrast arthrographic evaluation was performed; when communication with the tibiotarsal joint was not evident or suspected, 70% ethyl alcohol (3 mL) was injected. Group 1 horses underwent lameness, force-plate, and radiographic examinations every 3 months for 1 year. Ten other horses (group 2) underwent lameness and radiographic examinations followed by joint injection with alcohol; follow-up information was obtained from owners or via clinical examination.

Results—Significant postinjection reduction in lameness (after 3 days to 3 months) was evident for all treated horses. Twelve months after injection, 10 of 11 group 1 horses were not lame; lameness grade was 0.5 in 1 horse. Follow-up information was available for 9 of 10 group 2 horses; 7 were not lame, and 2 remained mildly lame (1 had a concurrent problem in the injected limb, and the other had DIT joint collapse that precluded needle entry).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intra-articular alcohol injection in horses with bone spavin resulted in a rapid (usually within 3 months) reduction in lameness and joint space collapse.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association