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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Administration of thiazide diuretics has been recommended to prevent calcium oxalate urolith development in dogs. To evaluate the effects of thiazide diuretics in dogs, 24-hour urine excretion of calcium was measured in 6 clinically normal Beagles after administration of chlorothiazide (ctz) for 2 weeks, administration of ctz for 10 weeks, and administration of calcium carbonate and ctz for 2 weeks. Compared with baseline values, 24-hour urine calcium excretion did not decrease after ctz administration. When ctz was given at a high dosage (130 mg/ kg of body weight), urinary calcium excretion was significantly (P < 0.04) higher than baseline values. Based on these observations, we do not recommend ctz for treatment or prevention of canine calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with sodium chloride (NaCl) on urinary calcium excretion, urine calcium concentration, and urinary relative supersaturation (RSS) with calcium oxalate (CaOx).

Animals—6 adult female healthy Beagles.

Procedure—By use of a crossover study design, a canned diet designed to decrease CaOx urolith recurrence with and without supplemental NaCl (ie, 1.2% and 0.24% sodium on a dry-matter basis, respectively) was fed to dogs for 6 weeks. Every 14 days, 24- hour urine samples were collected. Concentrations of lithogenic substances and urine pH were used to calculate values of urinary RSS with CaOx.

Results—When dogs consumed a diet supplemented with NaCl, 24-hour urine volume and 24-hour urine calcium excretion increased. Dietary supplementation with NaCl was not associated with a change in urine calcium concentration. However, urine oxalate acid concentrations and values of urinary RSS with CaOx were significantly lower after feeding the NaCl-supplemented diet for 28 days.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dietary supplementation with NaCl in a urolith-prevention diet decreased the propensity for CaOx crystallization in the urine of healthy adult Beagles. However, until long-term studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of dietary supplementation with NaCl in dogs with CaOx urolithiasis are preformed, we suggest that dietary supplementation with NaCl be used cautiously. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:319–324)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To culture Lactobacillus spp from veterinary probiotics and measure their in vitro oxalate-degrading capacity.

SAMPLE 2 commercial veterinary probiotics containing Lactobacillus spp.

PROCEDURES Lactobacillus spp were cultured anaerobically on selective deMan, Rogosa, Sharpe agar medium and subcultured for speciation by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Isolates were inoculated into broth containing sodium oxalate (5 mg/L) and incubated anaerobically for 72 hours. An oxalate-degrading isolate of Lactobacillus acidophilus (American Type Culture Collection [ATCC] 53544) was the positive control sample; sterile broth containing a known quantity of sodium oxalate was the negative control sample. Oxalate concentrations were detected with ion chromatography. Oxalate degradation was assessed with Dunnett tests to detect differences in mean oxalate concentration for each isolate, compared with results for the negative control.

RESULTS Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus casei or Lactobacillus zeae (too closely related to differentiate) were isolated from probiotic 1, and L plantarum was isolated from probiotic 2. Sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene confirmed 100% homology to type species. Lactobacillus acidophilus (ATCC 53544) and L acidophilus from probiotic 1 significantly decreased oxalate concentrations by 85.3 and 161.9 mg/L, respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum from probiotics 1 and 2 significantly increased oxalate concentrations by 56.1 and 36.1 mg/L, respectively. Lactobacillus casei did not alter oxalate concentrations.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Lactobacillus acidophilus isolates significantly reduced oxalate concentrations. In vivo studies are needed to determine whether probiotics containing L acidophilus decrease urine oxalate concentrations and reduce risk of urolith recurrence in dogs with a history of calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate urine concentrations of glycosaminoglycans, Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein, and nephrocalcin in cats fed a diet formulated to prevent calcium oxalate uroliths.

Animals—10 cats with calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

Procedures—In a previous study conducted in accordance with a balanced crossover design, cats were sequentially fed 2 diets (the diet each cat was consuming prior to urolith detection and a diet formulated to prevent calcium oxalate uroliths). Each diet was fed for 8 weeks. At the end of each 8-week period, a 72-hour urine sample was collected. Concentrations of glycosaminoglycans, Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein, and the 4 isoforms of nephrocalcin in urine samples collected during that previous study were measured in the study reported here.

Results—Diet had no effect on the quantity of Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein and nephrocalcin in urine. However, the urine concentration of glycosaminoglycans was significantly higher during consumption of the urolith prevention diet.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Feeding a urolith prevention diet increased the urine concentration of glycosaminoglycans, which are glycoprotein inhibitors of growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine hospital proportional morbidity rates (HPMR) for urethral obstructions, urethral plugs or urethroliths, and urethrostomies in cats in veterinary teaching hospitals (VTH) in Canada and the United States between 1980 and 1999.

Design—Epidemiologic study.

Animals—305,672 cats evaluated at VTH.

Procedures—Yearly HPMR were determined for cats with urethral obstructions, urethral plugs or urethroliths, or urethrostomies from data compiled by the Purdue Veterinary Medical Database. The test for a linear trend in proportions was used.

Results—Urethral obstructions were reported in 4,683 cats. Yearly HPMR for urethral obstructions declined from 19 cases/1,000 feline evaluations in 1980 to 7 cases/1,000 feline evaluations in 1999. Urethral plugs or urethroliths affected 1,460 cats. Yearly HPMR for urethral plugs or urethroliths decreased from 10 cases/1,000 feline evaluations in 1980 to 2 cases/1,000 feline evaluations in 1999. A total of 2,359 urethrostomies were performed. Yearly HPMR for urethrostomies decreased from 13 cases/1,000 feline evaluations in 1980 to 4 cases/1,000 feline evaluations in 1999.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Frequency of feline urethrostomies performed at VTH in Canada and the United States declined during the past 20 years and paralleled a similar decline in frequency of urethral obstructions and urethral plugs or urethroliths. These trends coincide with widespread use of diets to minimize struvite crystalluria in cats, which is important because struvite has consistently been the predominant mineral in feline urethral plugs during this period. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:502–505)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To test the hypothesis that urate uroliths are uncommonly detected in female Dalmatians, compared with males.

Design—Case-control study.

Sample Population—Medical records of dogs evaluated at veterinary teaching hospitals in North America from 1981 to 2002 and compiled by the Veterinary Medical Database, and records of dogs with uroliths submitted for quantitative analyses to the Minnesota Urolith Center from 1981 to 2002.

Procedures—Crude odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess whether sex (male vs female) was a risk factor for urate urolithiasis.

Results—In Dalmatians evaluated by veterinary teaching hospitals in North America, males were more likely (OR, 13.0) to form uroliths, compared with females. In Dalmatians that formed uroliths analyzed by the Minnesota Urolith Center, males were more likely (OR, 14.0) to form urate uroliths, compared with females. In all dogs (Dalmatian and non-Dalmatian) that formed uroliths analyzed by the Minnesota Urolith Center, males were also more likely (OR, 48.0) to form urate uroliths, compared with females.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—When conducting studies and formulating generalities about urate urolithiasis in Dalmatians, it is important to consider sex-related differences in urolith occurrence. Long-term dietary or drug protocols designed to minimize formation of urate uroliths in male Dalmatians may not be warranted in female Dalmatians. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:565–569)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare efficacy, required resources, and perioperative complications between laser lithotripsy and cystotomy for urolith (ie, urocystoliths and urethroliths) removal in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—66 dogs with urolithiasis treated by laser lithotripsy (case dogs) and 66 dogs with urolithiasis treated by cystotomy (control dogs).

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed. Complete urolith removal rate, resources (ie, duration of hospitalization, procedure time, anesthesia time, procedure cost, and anesthesia cost), and complications (ie, hypotension, hypothermia, incomplete urolith removal, and requirement of an ancillary procedure) were compared between cystotomy group dogs and lithotripsy group dogs.

Results—Duration of hospitalization was significantly shorter for lithotripsy group dogs, compared with cystotomy group dogs. Procedure time was significantly shorter for cystotomy group dogs, compared with lithotripsy group dogs. Cost of anesthesia was significantly less for cystotomy group dogs, compared with lithotripsy group dogs. No significant differences were found between cystotomy group dogs and lithotripsy group dogs with regard to urolith removal rate, procedure cost, anesthesia time, or any of the evaluated complications.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Laser lithotripsy is a minimally invasive procedure that has been shown to be safe and effective in the removal of urocystoliths and urethroliths in dogs. No significant differences were found in the required resources or complications associated with laser lithotripsy, compared with cystotomy, for removal of uroliths from the lower portions of the urinary tract of dogs. Laser lithotripsy is a suitable, minimally invasive alternative to surgical removal of urethroliths and urocystoliths in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare body condition score (BCS) and urinalysis variables between dogs with and without calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths.

DESIGN Case-control study.

ANIMALS 46 Miniature Schnauzers, 16 Bichons Frises, and 6 Shih Tzus.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed for Miniature Schnauzers, Bichons Frises, and Shih Tzus that were examined between January 2001 and November 2014 for another urolithiasis study or for a urolith removal procedure. Dogs with CaOx uroliths were classified as cases. Dogs without a history of urinary tract disease and with no evidence of radiopaque uroliths on abdominal radiographs were classified as controls. Each case was matched with 1 control on the basis of age (± 2 years), sex, and breed. Body condition score and urinalysis results were compared between cases and controls, and the relationship between BCS and urine pH was analyzed.

RESULTS Median BCS was significantly greater for cases than controls, although the proportion of overweight dogs did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Urine pH was negatively associated with age, but was not associated with BCS or the presence of CaOx uroliths. Cases infrequently had acidic urine or CaOx crystalluria but frequently had hematuria and proteinuria.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that dogs with CaOx uroliths had a greater median BCS than control dogs, but the clinical importance of that finding was unclear. Acidic urine and CaOx crystalluria were uncommon and not adequate predictors of CaOx urolith status. Hematuria and proteinuria were commonly observed in dogs with CaOx urolithiasis, but they are not pathognomonic for that condition.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association