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Abstract

Objective—To determine the ultrasonographic appearance and detectability of edema induced by SC injection of mild silver protein suspension in the mammary gland attachments of dairy cows.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—6 lactating cows.

Procedure—In each cow, the number of quarters that received injections was randomly assigned. A mild silver protein susoension was injected SC into cranial and caudal mammary gland attachment sites. The number of injections and volume injected were determined on the basis of the appearance of the mammary gland and the desired subjective visual effect. Seventeen sites were chosen for injection and 7 sites did not receive injections. Ultrasonographic images were obtained 1 day prior and 6 days after injections were started. Cows received injections 1, 3, and 5 days after initial sonography. The sonographer was unaware of which sites received injections.

Results—Ultrasonography revealed alternating hypoechoic and hyperechoic bands at injection sites. Certain injections caused the intimal surface of the subcutaneous abdominal vein to develop a corrugated appearance. All injection sites were correctly identified ultrasonographically (100% sensitivity, 100% specificity) with a positive and negative predictive value of 1.0.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that mild silver protein suspension injected SC to enhance the appearance of the mammary glands of dairy cows can be readily detected by ultrasonography. Detection of injection sites should be made on the basis of the distribution and ultrasonographic appearance of edema. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:408–410)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify prognostic indicators and inflammatory markers associated with nonsurvival in dogs with gallbladder mucoceles (GBMs) following cholecystectomy and to evaluate C-reactive protein (CRP) and haptoglobin concentrations in dogs with GBMs compared to healthy controls.

ANIMALS

25 dogs that underwent cholecystectomy for removal of GBM and 20 healthy control dogs.

METHODS

A prospective, multicenter cohort study. Survival outcomes to hospital discharge and 2 weeks postdischarge were recorded from medical records. Laboratory variables, inflammatory markers (CRP and haptoglobin), and 25-hydroxyvitamin(OH) D (25[OH]D) concentrations were measured preoperatively. Associations between signalment, clinicopathologic variables, acute patient physiologic and laboratory evaluation (APPLEFAST) scores, inflammatory markers, 25(OH)D concentration, and survival were analyzed using logistic regression.

RESULTS

76% (19/25) and 68% (17/25) of dogs survived to hospital discharge and 2 weeks postdischarge, respectively. For each additional year of age, the odds of nonsurvival in hospital and 2 weeks postdischarge increased by 2.2 (P = .01; 95% CI, 1.2 to 5.0) and 1.7 (P = .04; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.2), respectively. Intraoperative systolic blood pressure ≤ 65 mm Hg increased the probability of nonsurvival in hospital (P < .04). Gallbladder perforation, APPLEFAST scores, and preoperative serum concentrations of CRP, haptoglobin, and 25(OH)D were not associated with survival. Serum CRP and haptoglobin concentrations were greater in dogs with GBM compared to controls (P < .001).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Increasing age and intraoperative systolic blood pressure ≤ 65 mm Hg were associated with nonsurvival in dogs with GBM undergoing cholecystectomy. Serum CRP, haptoglobin, and 25(OH)D were not associated with nonsurvival postcholecystectomy in this sample population.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association