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  • Author or Editor: Joaquin D. Araos x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the acquisition and pitfalls of a 3-view transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) protocol in anesthetized, dorsally recumbent dogs.

ANIMALS

8 beagles, 1 to 2 years old, 7.4 to 11.2 kg.

METHODS

Dogs were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, and placed in dorsal recumbency. A TEE probe was advanced, and 3 views were performed: midesophageal 4-chamber and long axis (ME 4C and ME LAX) and caudal esophageal short axis (CE SAX) at the level of the papillary muscles. Probe insertion depth, flexion, omniplane angle, and image acquisition time were recorded. Two observers assessed 24 video clips each and identified anatomical structures.

RESULTS

The ME 4C and ME LAX were obtained at 35 (30 to 40) cm insertion depth, omniplane at 0° and 103° (90 to 116), respectively. Views were obtained in ≤30 seconds once the TEE was in the cervical esophagus. Left-sided structures were identified in all cases, whereas right-sided structures were not always simultaneously obtained in the ME 4C, requiring further probe manipulation. All structures were identified on ME LAX. CE SAX was obtained at 40 (35 to 45) cm, omniplane at 0°, and in 15 (10 to 90) seconds. A true SAX view (circular left ventricle at the level of papillary muscles) could not be obtained in all dogs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

A 3-view TEE protocol using core views as those described in humans may be applicable to dogs under general anesthesia and in dorsal recumbency. The CE SAX view at the level of the papillary muscles appears more difficult to obtain with consistency than midesophageal views.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To test whether the use of a flexible endotracheal tube introducer (ETI) facilitates intubation of cats by veterinary students with little or no experience.

ANIMALS

125 healthy cats.

PROCEDURES

Cats were sedated with dexmedetomidine and morphine IM, and anesthesia was induced with propofol. They were randomly assigned to be intubated by supervised veterinary students using an ETI within a tracheal tube or an endotracheal tube alone (3.0, 3.5, or 4.0 internal diameter sizes). Success rate at first attempt, number of attempts to intubate (up to 3), and time to intubate were recorded. Multivariate logistic regression was used to test associations between several factors such as use of an ETI, cat’s weight, endotracheal tube size, administration of ketamine for sedation, and first-attempt success. Significance was considered when P < 0.05.

RESULTS

Success rate for the first attempt was higher with an ETI (79% [51/64) than without it (46% [28/61]), and attempts to intubate were fewer when an ETI was used (both P < 0.001). Time to intubate did not differ between groups (ETI, 30 seconds [4 to 143 seconds]; endotracheal tube, 28 seconds [5 to 180 seconds]). Use of an ETI was positively associated with improved first-attempt success, and the 3.0-mm internal diameter of the tube was negatively associated (both P ≤ 0.001).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The use of a flexible ETI improved the success of first-attempt intubation of cats by veterinary students. This technique may help minimize the number of attempts during intubation and incidence of complications that could arise from multiple attempts.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of the oxygen content–based index, Fshunt, as an indicator of venous admixture (s/t) at various fractions of inspired oxygen (Fio 2s) in anesthetized sheep undergoing Flung or 2-lung ventilation.

Animals—6 healthy adult female sheep.

Procedures—Sheep were anesthetized and administered 5 different Fio 2s (0.21, 0.40, 0.60, 0.80, and 1.00) in random order during 2-lung mechanical ventilation. Arterial and mixed venous blood samples were obtained at each Fio 2 after a 15-minute stabilization period. Vital capacity alveolar recruitment maneuvers were performed after blood collection. The previously used Fio 2 sequence was reversed for sample collection during Flung ventilation. Blood samples were analyzed for arterial, pulmonary end-capillary, and mixed venous oxygen content and partial pressure and for hemoglobin concentration. Oxygen hemoglobin saturation, s/t, Fshunt, and oxygen tension–based indices (OTIs; including Pao 2:Fio 2, alveolar-arterial difference in partial pressure of oxygen [Pao 2 – Pao 2], [Pao 2 – Pao 2]:Fio 2, [Pao 2 – Pao 2]:Pao 2, and Pao 2:Pao 2) were calculated at each Fio 2; associations were evaluated with linear regression analysis, concordance, and correlation tests. Intermethod agreement between s/t and Fshunt was tested via Bland-Altman analysis.

Results—Strong and significant associations and substantial agreement were detected between Fshunt and s/t. Relationships between OTIs and s/t varied, but overall correlations were weak.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Whereas OTIs were generally poor indicators of s/t, Fshunt was a good indicator of s/t at various Fio 2s, regardless of the magnitude of s/t, and could be potentially used as a surrogate for s/t measurements in healthy sheep.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To test whether the use of low-dose epidural anesthesia (EA) in goats undergoing lower urinary tract surgery reduces the requirements of perioperative analgesics, contributes to intraoperative hypotension, and improves postoperative comfort during the first 24 hours after surgery.

ANIMALS

Retrospective analysis of 38 goats between January 2019 and July 2022.

PROCEDURES

Goats were divided into 2 groups (EA or no EA). Demographic characteristics, surgical procedure, time of anesthesia, and anesthetic agents used were compared between treatment groups. Outcome variables potentially related to the use of EA included dose of inhalational anesthetics, incidence of hypotension (mean arterial pressure < 60 mm Hg), intraoperative and postoperative administration of morphine, and time to first meal after surgery.

RESULTS

EA (n = 21) consisted of bupivacaine or ropivacaine 0.1% to 0.2% with an opioid. There were no differences between groups except for age (EA group was younger). Less inhalational anesthetic (P = .03) and less intraoperative morphine (P = .008) were used in the EA group. The incidence of hypotension was 52% for EA and 58% for no EA (P = .691). Administration of postoperative morphine was not different between groups (EA, 67%, and no EA, 53%; P = .686). Time to first meal was 7.5 hours (3 to 18 hours) for EA and 11 hours (2 to 24 hours) for no EA (P = .057).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Low-dose EA reduced the use of intraoperative anesthetics/analgesics in goats undergoing lower urinary tract surgery without an increased incidence of hypotension. Postoperative morphine administration was not reduced.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association