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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate effects of butorphanol tartrate and buprenorphine hydrochloride on withdrawal threshold to a noxious stimulus in conscious African grey parrots.

Animals

29 African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus and Psittacus erithacus timneh).

Procedure

Birds were fitted with an electrode on the medial metatarsal region of the right leg, placed into a test box, and allowed to acclimate. An electrical stimulus (range, 0.0 to 1.46 mA) was delivered to each bird’s foot through an aluminum perch. A withdrawal response was recorded when the bird lifted its foot from the perch or vigorously flinched its wings. Baseline threshold to a noxious electrical stimulus was determined. Birds then were randomly assigned to receive an IM injection of saline (0.9% NaCI) solution, butorphanol (1.0 mg/kg of body weight), or buprenorphine (0.1 mg/kg), and threshold values were determined again.

Results

Butorphanol significantly increased threshold value, but saline solution or buprenorphine did not significantly change threshold values.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Butorphanol had an analgesic effect, significantly increasing the threshold to electrical stimuli in African grey parrots. Buprenorphine at the dosage used did not change the threshold to electrical stimulus. Butorphanol provided an analgesic response in half of the birds tested. Butorphanol would be expected to provide analgesia to African grey parrots in a clinical setting. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1218–1221)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To develop a technique for objective assessment of modulation of nociperception in conscious perching birds.

Animals

31 adult African grey parrots.

Procedure

Birds were randomly assigned to receive saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (n = 10), butorphanol tartrate (11), or buprenorphine hydrochloride (10), IM. Birds were fitted with a surface electrode on the medial metatarsus of 1 leg. An electrical stimulus was delivered to the bird’s foot through an aluminum surface on half of the perch. The alternate side of the perch delivered a noxious thermal stimulus. A withdrawal response to either stimulus was recorded when the bird lifted its foot or vigorously flinched its wings.

Results

Responses to thermal stimuli were extremely variable during baseline testing and after administration of drugs. Thus, significant differences were not detected after drug injection. In contrast, responses to an electrical stimulus were predictable with much less variation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

This method and device allowed for the reliable determination of withdrawal threshold in perching birds. Use of this technique for objective assessment of modulation of nociperception in conscious perching birds will enable assessment of analgesic drugs. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1213–1217)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—

To compare, in psittacines, the mydriatic effects of several topically applied curariform, sympathomimetic, and parasympatholytic drugs with and without the addition of surface-acting penetrating agents.

Design—

Prospective, randomized controlled trial.

Animals—

10 adult cockatoos (Cacatua sulphurea subspecies), 2 adult African gray parrots (Psittacus erithacus), and 3 adult Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aesiiva).

Procedure—

Three curariform drugs (d-tubocurarine, pancuronium, and vecuronium bromide) and 2 autonomic drugs (atropine and phenylephrine hydrochloride) were evaluated. Drugs were tested with and without the addition of a surface-acting penetrating agent, either saponin or benzalkonium chloride. The agent that resulted in the most significant change in pupillary diameter with the fewest systemic side effects in the cockatoos then was evaluated for its effects in the African gray parrots and the Blue-fronted Amazon parrots. During each drug trial, 1 eye was randomly selected to receive the control drug (0.9% NaCI), and the opposite eye was selected to receive the test drug. Each pupil was videotaped 5 (cockatoos only), 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 minutes after treatment. Pupil diameters were measured by use of a computerized image analysis system. Data for pupil size were analyzed by means of repeated measures ANOVA.

Results—

Vecuronium without the addition of a surface-acting penetrating agent produced the most consistent and greatest pupillary dilatation in all 3 species with the fewest systemic side effects.

Clinical Implications—

Vecuronium is potentially a clinically useful, topical mydriatic agent for use in avian species. Documented differences in the prevalence of systemic side effects between species suggests that caution should be applied when applying this drug bilaterally. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:227-230)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

  • Lymphosarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnoses of exophthalmia in Indian peafowl.

  • Complications of orbital exenteration in birds may include profound oculocardiac reflex and hemorrhage. Orbital bleeding may be controlled by direct pressure, electrocautery, topical administration of bovine thrombin, and application of sterile gelatine sponges and oxidized regenerated cellulose. Blood transfusions may be necessary.

  • Reticuloendotheliosis virus may play a role in the genesis of lymphosarcoma in peafowl.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To evaluate a carrageenan-induced inflammatory model in the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) using weight-bearing load, rotational perch locomotion, thermal threshold withdrawal, and footpad dimensions.

ANIMALS

16 adult cockatiels (8 males and 8 females).

PROCEDURES

Cockatiels were randomly assigned into 2 groups as either treatment (carrageenan injection; n = 8) or control (handling only; 8). Treatment of cockatiels involved unilateral subcutaneous injection of 0.05 mL of 1% lambda carrageenan solution into the left footpad. Control birds were handled in a similar manner without an injection. Following baseline measurements and treatment or control procedures, posttreatment measurements at multiple time points involving weight-bearing perch load (for up to 336 hours), locomotive abilities when placed on a rotating perch (for up to 96 hours), thermal withdrawal threshold (for the 24- to 30-hour period), and both vertical and horizontal left footpad size and degree of swelling (for up to 84 days) were obtained.

RESULTS

Treatment cockatiels had a significant decrease in left foot weight-bearing load and increase in left footpad dimensions and swelling grade over time compared to control cockatiels. Rotational perch locomotion and thermal withdrawal threshold, conversely, did not differ significantly between groups. Cockatiels injected with carrageenan returned to normal weight-bearing within 2 weeks; however, left footpad dimensions did not return to baseline.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Carrageenan footpad injection prompts a measurable and grossly visible inflammatory response in the cockatiel. Additionally, it induces alterations in weight-bearing distribution in injected birds. This model provides a method to evaluate inflammation and lameness in small psittacine species.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine pharmacokinetics and sedative effects of buprenorphine after IV and oral transmucosal (OTM) administration in guinea pigs.

ANIMALS 14 male guinea pigs (6 adults for preliminary experiment; eight 8 to 11-week-old animals for primary study).

PROCEDURES A preliminary experiment was conducted to determine an appropriate buprenorphine dose. In the primary study, buprenorphine (0.2 mg/kg) was administered IV or OTM, and blood samples were obtained. The pH of the oral cavity was measured before OTM administration. Sedation was scored for 6 hours on a scale of 0 to 3 (0 = no sedation and 3 = heavy sedation). After a 7-day washout period, procedures were repeated in a crossover manner. Plasma buprenorphine concentration was quantified, and data were analyzed with a noncompartmental pharmacokinetic approach.

RESULTS Mean peak plasma buprenorphine concentrations were 46.7 and 2.4 ng/mL after IV and OTM administration, respectively. Mean time to maximum plasma buprenorphine concentration was 1.5 and 71.2 minutes, and mean terminal half-life was 184.9 and 173.0 minutes for IV and OTM administration, respectively. There was a range of sedation effects (0 to 2) for both routes of administration, which resolved within the 6-hour time frame.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE On the basis of pharmacokinetic parameters for this study, buprenorphine at 0.2 mg/kg may be administered IV every 7 hours or OTM every 4 hours to maintain a target plasma concentration of 1 ng/mL. Further studies are needed to evaluate administration of multiple doses and sedative effects in guinea pigs with signs of pain.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after IM and IV administration to orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica).

ANIMALS

8 orange-winged Amazon parrots (4 males and 4 females).

PROCEDURES

Hydromorphone (1 mg/kg) was administered once IM. Blood samples were collected 5 minutes and 0.5, 1.5, 2, 3, 6, and 9 hours after drug administration. Plasma hydromorphone concentrations were determined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with a compartmental model. The experiment was repeated 1 month later with the same dose of hydromorphone administered IV.

RESULTS

Plasma hydromorphone concentrations were > 1 ng/mL for 6 hours in 8 of 8 and 6 of 7 parrots after IM and IV injection, respectively. After IM administration, mean bioavailability was 97.6%, and mean maximum plasma concentration was 179.1 ng/mL 17 minutes after injection. Mean volume of distribution and plasma drug clearance were 4.24 L/kg and 64.2 mL/min/kg, respectively, after IV administration. Mean elimination half-lives were 1.74 and 1.45 hours after IM and IV administration, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Hydromorphone hydrochloride had high bioavailability and rapid elimination after IM administration, with rapid plasma clearance and a large volume of distribution after IV administration in orange-winged Amazon parrots. Drug elimination half-lives were short. Further pharmacokinetic studies of hydromorphone and its metabolites, including investigation of multiple doses, different routes of administration, and sustained-release formulations, are recommended.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize clinical and pathological findings of rabbits evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital because of dystocia.

DESIGN

Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS

9 client-owned rabbits and 1 wild rabbit with signs of dystocia evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital from 1996 through 2016.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of rabbits were reviewed to collect data on signalment; medical history; physical examination, laboratory, diagnostic imaging, and procedural findings; treatment; final diagnosis; and outcome. Data were summarized.

RESULTS

Dystocia in 7 rabbits was successfully managed through medical treatment, assisted vaginal delivery, or both (n = 6) or surgery alone (1); 3 rabbits were euthanized. Primiparous does, does ≤ 4 years old, and does of small breeds (< 2 kg [4.4 lb]) were most common. All client-owned rabbits had clinical signs of abnormal second-stage parturition, whereas the wild rabbit had only hemorrhagic vulvar discharge. Imaging was used to identify the number, size, and state of fetuses in most rabbits. Overall, 35 fetuses were accounted for, 25 of which were dead or later died. The cause of dystocia was determined for 8 rabbits and included fetal-maternal mismatch (n = 4), uterine inertia (2), fetal death or mummification (1), and stress-induced abortion (1).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Obstructive dystocia from fetal macrosomia with or without secondary uterine inertia was the most common cause of dystocia in the evaluated rabbits. Although medical management was successful for many rabbits with dystocia in this study, surgery could still be required in other affected rabbits, particularly when fetal-maternal mismatch is involved.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association