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  • Author or Editor: Joanne C. Sheen x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine prognostic relevance of various patient factors and intraoperative variables associated with surgical management of small intestinal obstruction in pet rabbits.

ANIMALS

114 pet rabbits with 141 presentations of small intestinal obstruction treated surgically between June 2011 and December 2021.

METHODS

In a retrospective observational study design, medical records were reviewed for rabbits with small intestinal obstruction that had undergone surgical intervention. Data were collected on variables of interest and outcome (survival to hospital discharge). Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify variables associated with survival.

RESULTS

Overall survival was 75.2% (106/141). Specifically, 95.7% (22/23) of presentations involving rabbits < 25 months survived. The odds of survival on univariable modeling were significantly lower in presentations of rabbits > 72 months compared with those < 25 months (OR, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.40; P = .005). Rectal temperature, clinicopathologic findings, etiology of obstruction, presence of full-thickness gastrointestinal wall injury, and previous small intestinal obstruction surgery did not show significant effects on survival. In a multivariable model that controlled for plasma potassium and calculated plasma osmolarity and tonicity, the odds of survival in presentations of rabbits > 72 months were 95% lower than those < 25 months (OR, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.50; P = .012).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Surgical intervention should be considered a suitable treatment option for small intestinal obstruction in rabbits < 72 months and carried a good prognosis. The most common etiology was consistent with a compressed hair pellet, and extraluminal digital manipulation into the cecum was a successful surgical technique in most presentations.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate risk factors, clinical features, and prognostic indicators in guinea pigs with urolithiasis.

ANIMALS

158 guinea pigs with urolithiasis.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of an exotics animal specialty service were searched, identifying guinea pigs with urolithiasis. Signalment, clinical data, and outcomes were recorded. Variables of interest were analyzed for statistical associations with outcome.

RESULTS

Overall, 54.4% (86/158) of animals survived to discharge. Median survival time was 177 days. Females (53.2%; 84/158) were more common than males (46.8%; 74/158). Males were presented younger (mean age, 3.64 years) than females (4.41 years). In 81 of 154 (52.5%) cases, animals were presented with primary urinary concerns, while 73 (47.5%) presented for nonurinary primary concerns. Females more commonly presented with distal urinary tract urolithiasis (63/84; 75%) but fared better overall with a longer median survival time (1,149 days) than males (59 days). Surgical intervention was not a risk factor for nonsurvival; however, increased age (> 4.1 years), male sex, anorexia, weight loss, and lower rectal temperature (< 37.2 °C) on presentation were associated with nonsurvival. Reoccurrence was noted in 13.9% (22/158) of cases, at an average of 284 days.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Urolithiasis should always be considered a differential diagnosis for any unwell guinea pig. In particular, distal urinary tract urolithiasis should be considered in females. A poorer prognosis was associated with older, male guinea pigs, and those displaying anorexia, weight loss, and hypothermia. The need for surgical intervention should not confer a poorer outcome. Further studies are needed to determine specific risk factors and identify possible preventative measures.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association