To compare the salaries of certified veterinary technicians with an associate's degree to those with a bachelor's or a master's degree.
1,289 credentialed veterinary technicians in the United States.
Credentialed veterinary technicians were asked to complete an online questionnaire in the fall of 2018 administered by veterinary technician associations and accredited veterinary technology institutions. Additional links to the survey were published on various social media sources.
Mean ± SD hourly pay rate for all respondents was $20.24 ± 6.33. Weighted mean pay rate for those with an associate's degree was $19.93, with a bachelor's degree was $22.37, and with a master's degree was $27.55. Factors positively influencing veterinary technician salary were years of experience as a licensed veterinary technician, level of education, gender, veterinary technician specialist certification, and years worked for current employer.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Years of experience as a licensed veterinary technician, level of education, gender, veterinary technician specialist certification, and years with current employer affected pay rate for credentialed veterinary technicians in the United States.
Objective—To measure concentrations of glutamate, aspartate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glycine in CSF of dogs with experimentally induced subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to assess effects of cyclosporine and simvastatin on these concentrations.
Sample—CSF samples from 13 dogs.
Procedures—In a previous study, SAH was induced in dogs via 2 injections of autologous blood into the cerebellomedullary cistern 24 hours apart. Dogs were untreated (control; n = 5) or received simvastatin alone (4) or simvastatin in combination with cyclosporine (4). Samples of CSF were collected before the first blood injection (baseline; time 0), before the second blood injection, and on days 3, 7, and 10. For the study reported here, neurotransmitter concentrations in CSF were analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography. Data were analyzed with a repeated-measures model with adjustments for multiple comparisons by use of the Tukey method.
Results—In control dogs, the glutamate concentration peaked on day 3 and there was a significant increase in GABA and glutamate concentrations. Glutamate concentrations were significantly lower and glycine concentrations significantly higher on day 3 after administration of simvastatin alone or simvastatin in combination with cyclosporine, compared with concentrations for the control group. No significant differences in GABA and aspartate concentrations were detected among treatment groups at any time point.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Glutamate concentrations were increased in the CSF of dogs with SAH. Simvastatin administration attenuated high glutamate concentrations. A combination of immunosuppression and upregulation of nitric oxide synthase may be useful in lowering high glutamate concentrations in ischemic CNS conditions.
Objective—To develop a model of low urethral pressure
incontinence and compare the relative contributions
of the pudendal and hypogastric nerves with
urethral function by performing selective neurectomy
and ovariohysterectomy in dogs.
Animals—19 healthy Foxhounds.
Procedure—Dogs were allocated into 2 groups. The
first group (10 dogs) underwent bilateral hypogastric
neurectomy and ovariohysterectomy and subsequent
bilateral pudendal neurectomy. The second group (9
dogs) underwent bilateral pudendal neurectomy and
subsequent hypogastric neurectomy and ovariohysterectomy.
Urethral pressure profilometry and leak
point pressure (LPP) tests were performed before
and after each neurectomy.
Results—Before surgery, mean ± SD LPP and maximal
urethral closure pressure (MUCP) in all dogs were
169.3 ± 24.9 cm H2O and 108.3 ± 19.3 cm H2O,
respectively; these values decreased to 92.3 ± 27 cm
H2O and 60.7 ± 20.0 cm H2O, respectively, after both
selective neurectomy surgeries. There was a progressive
decline of LPP after each neurectomy; however,
MUCP decreased only after pudendal neurectomy.
Fifteen dogs had mild clinical signs of urinary incontinence.
All dogs appeared to have normal bladder
function as indicated by posturing to void and consciously
voiding a full stream of urine. Urinary tract
infection did not develop in any dog.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hypogastric
and pudendal neurectomy and ovariohysterectomy
caused a maximum decrease in LPP, whereas pudendal
neurectomy caused a maximum decrease in
Impact on Human Medicine—This model may be
useful for evaluation of treatments for improving urinary
control in postmenopausal women. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:695–699)
Case Description—A 4-month-old Missouri Fox Trotter colt was examined for a 5-week history of head tilt after treatment for suspected pulmonary Rhodococcus equi infection.
Clinical Findings—Computed tomography revealed osteolysis of the occipital, temporal, and caudal portion of the parietal bones of the left side of the cranium. A soft tissue mass compressing the occipital region of the cerebral cortex and cerebellum was associated with the osteolytic bone.
Treatment and Outcome—A rostrotentorial-suboccipital craniectomy approach was performed to remove fragmented occipital bone, debulk the intracranial mass, and obtain tissue samples for histologic examination and bacterial culture. All neurologic deficits improved substantially within 3 days after surgery. Bacterial culture of the resected soft tissue and bone fragments yielded R equi.
Clinical Relevance—Intracranial surgery in veterinary medicine has been limited to dogs and cats; however, in select cases, extrapolation of surgical techniques used in humans and small animals can assist with intracranial procedures in horses.
Objective—To detect matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in serum and CSF and determine relationships between MMP activity and severity of disease, duration of clinical signs, and duration of hospitalization in dogs with acute intervertebral disk disease (IVDD).
Animals—35 dogs with acute IVDD and 8 clinically normal control dogs.
Procedure—CSF and serum were collected from affected and control dogs. Zymography was used to detect MMP-9.
Results—Activity of MMP-9 in CSF was detected in 6 of 35 dogs with IVDD; activity was significantly more common in dogs with duration of signs < 24 hours. Paraplegic dogs were more likely to have MMP-9 activity in the CSF than non-paraplegic dogs. No significant difference in hospitalization time was detected in dogs with IVDD between those with and without activity of MMP-9 in the CSF. Serum MMP-9 was detected more frequently in dogs with IVDD than in control dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data were consistent with results of experimental rodent spinal cord injury studies that indicate that MMP-9 is expressed early during secondary injury.