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Case Description—6 lactating dairy goats were examined because of acute mastitis.

Clinical Findings—Goats were considered to have endotoxemia on the basis of physical examination and clinicopathologic findings. The affected udder halves had gangrenous discolored distal portions with sharp demarcations from grossly normal tissue proximally. Udder secretions from the affected sides were serosanguineous in all cases. A Bacillus sp was isolated in pure cultures in all cases. In 1 case, the Bacillus sp was identified as Bacillus cereus.

Treatment and Outcome—Goats were treated for mastitis and endotoxemia with polyionic IV fluid therapy, systemic and intramammary antimicrobial administration, anti-inflammatory drug administration, and other supportive treatment. All goats survived to discharge. All except 1 goat had follow-up information available. The affected udder halves sloughed in 1 to 2 months following discharge. In subsequent lactations after the mastitis episodes, milk production in 2 of 5 goats was above the mean, as determined on the basis of Dairy Herd Improvement records, and 3 of 5 goats were voluntarily withdrawn from lactation. All 5 goats had successful kiddings after the Bacillus mastitis episode.

Conclusions and Clinical RelevanceBacillus sp should be considered as a causative agent in goats with gangrenous mastitis, especially when the Bacillus sp is isolated in a pure culture. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing is recommended for selection of an appropriate antimicrobial for treatment. Prognosis for survival appears to be good, although milk production may be decreased.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) following SC administration of a single dose to sheep.

Animals—9 healthy adult female Suffolk-crossbred sheep.

Procedures—Each sheep was administered 6.6 mg of CCFA/kg, SC, in the cervical region once. Serial blood samples were collected at predetermined intervals for 14 days. Serum concentration of ceftiofur free-acid equivalents (CFAE) was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by compartmental and noncompartmental methods.

Results—Pharmacokinetics for CCFA following SC administration in sheep was best described with a 1-compartment model. Mean ± SD area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity, peak serum concentration, and time to peak serum concentration were 206.6 ± 24.8 μ•h/mL, 2.4 ± 0.5 μg/mL, and 23.1 ± 10.1 h, respectively. Serum CFAE concentrations ≥ 1 μg/mL (the target serum CFAE concentration for treatment of disease caused by Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida) were maintained for 2.6 to 4.9 days. No significant adverse reactions to CCFA administration were observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that adequate therapeutic serum concentrations of CFAE for treatment of disease caused by M haemolytica and P multocida were achieved in sheep following SC administration of a single dose (6.6 mg/kg) of CCFA. Thus, CCFA might be useful for the treatment of common respiratory tract pathogens in sheep.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


To determine whether heifers with naturally acquired congenital exposure to Neospora sp would transmit the infection to their offspring during gestation.


Prospective cohort study.


Neonatal heifers on a dairy with a history of Neospora sp infections were selected for the study on the basis of their serum titers to Neospora sp, as determined by the use of indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Seropositive heifers (n = 25) had titers ≥ 1:5,120 and seronegative heifers (25) had titers ≤ 1:80. All heifers were raised and bred on the dairy, and samples were obtained from heifers and their calves at the time of calving.


Blood samples were tested for Neospora sp antibodies. Histologic evaluations, Neospora sp immunohistochemical examinations. and protozoal culturing were performed on samples obtained from selected offspring (second-generation calves).


Seropositive heifers gave birth to calves with titers ≥ 1:1,280 to Neospora sp. All offspring from seropositive heifers that were necropsied had evidence of Neospora sp infection. All seronegative heifers and their offspring had titers < 1:80 to Neospora sp.

Clinical Implications—

Congenitally acquired Neospora sp infection can persist in clinically normal heifers and be transmitted transplacentally to their offspring. Vertical transmission can be a way by which neosporosis is maintained in herds. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:1169–1172)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association