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- Author or Editor: JoLynn Joyce x
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Objective—To compare pain responses in stallions undergoing standing laparoscopic cryptorchidectomy following intratesticular or mesorchial infiltration of lidocaine.
Animals—20 stallions with 1 or 2 undescended testes.
Procedures—Standing horses were administered a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and a caudal epidural injection of detomidine hydrochloride and underwent laparoscopic cryptorchidectomy. The undescended testis (1/horse) was grasped to determine the preoperative pain response (present vs absent) and assess severity of pain (by use of a visual analog scale [VAS]). The undescended testis or its mesorchium was injected with 2% lidocaine (10 mL); saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (10 mL) was injected in the untreated structure. Presence and severity of pain was determined by 2 individuals as the testis was grasped following infiltration and at the times of ligature placement and transection of the spermatic cord. Serum cortisol concentration was analyzed preoperatively, after ligation, and after transection. Presence or absence of signs of pain, severity of pain, and serum cortisol concentrations were compared within and between treatment groups.
Results—Detection of signs of pain and VAS pain scores did not differ between observers at any time point. Perceived pain responses associated with ligature placement differed significantly from preoperative responses. Pain responses and serum cortisol concentrations after intratesticular and mesorchial infiltration of lidocaine did not differ.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that intratesticular or mesorchial infiltration of lidocaine combined with administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and caudal epidural injection of detomidine provides adequate analgesia in standing stallions undergoing laparoscopic cryptorchidectomy.
Objective—To determine the clinical applications, short and long-term survival, and complications of using transfixation pin casts for treatment of comminuted phalangeal fractures in adult horses.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed to obtain information regarding signalment, fracture location, treatment methods, complications, and short-term survival (discharge from hospital). Long-term follow-up information was obtained via contact with owners or trainers.
Results—12 fractures were in a hind limb, and 8 were in a forelimb. Fourteen fractures occurred in a middle phalanx, and 6 occurred in a proximal phalanx. Eleven fractures were treated with internal fixation combined with transfixation pin casts, and 9 fractures were treated with transfixation pin casts alone. Transfixation pin casts were maintained for a mean of 52 days (median, 49 days; range, 1 to 131 days). Fourteen (70%) horses were discharged from the hospital, whereas 6 (30%) were euthanized during the treatment period. Reasons for euthanasia included secondary fracture of the third metacarpal or metatarsal bone, avascularity of the distal aspect of the limb associated with an open fracture, and displacement of the fracture after transfixation pin cast removal. A significantly greater number of horses was discharged from the hospital when the transfixation pin cast was maintained for > 40 days, compared with those in which the transfixation pin cast was maintained for < 40 days.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that horses should be maintained in a transfixation pin cast for a minimum of 40 days, as this was associated with an increase in short-term survival without an increased risk of catastrophic failure.