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  • Author or Editor: Jo Ann Morrison x
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Objective—To compare the ease and effects of collecting blood from cats by use of subcutaneous totally implantable vascular access ports (VAPs) with collection via conventional jugular phlebotomy.

Design—Prospective randomized experimental study.

Animals—8 healthy cats.

Procedures—Cats in the port group (n = 4) underwent monthly blood donation by use of VAPs and manual restraint, and cats in the nonport group (4) underwent monthly blood donation by use of conventional jugular phlebotomy and sedation, for 6 months.

Results—Postsurgical VAP-related complications developed in 3 cats and included port erosion (n = 1), disconnection of the port from the catheter (1), and seroma formation (1). Blood was successfully collected 24 of 24 and 20 of 20 times in the nonport and port groups, respectively. Results of bacterial culture of blood were negative in 22 of 24 and 15 of 20 nonport and port collections, respectively. No differences in RBC morphology were observed between groups. Mean blood collection and total donation times were significantly longer for the nonport group. Collection time was more variable in the nonport group, and cats were less tolerant of handling during venipuncture, compared with cats in the port group. Blood collection required a mean of 2.4 persons for the nonport group and 2.1 persons for the port group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Positive results for blood collections via VAPs were increased donor acceptance, decreased number of personnel required, and decreased collection time. Drawbacks included contamination of blood products and port-related complications.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To examine the risk of developing an overweight or obese (O/O) body condition score (BCS) in gonadectomized versus intact dogs and, separately, the impact of age at gonadectomy on O/O outcomes among sterilized dogs.


Dogs were patients of Banfield Pet Hospital in the US from 2013 to 2019. After exclusion criteria were applied, the final sample consisted of 155,199 dogs.


In this retrospective cohort study, Cox proportional hazards models evaluated associations between O/O and gonadectomy status, sex, age at gonadectomy, and breed size. Models were used to estimate the risk of becoming O/O in gonadectomized versus intact dogs and, separately, to estimate risk of O/O BCS according to age at surgery among gonadectomized dogs.


Gonadectomy increased O/O risk for most dogs compared to intact dogs. Unlike most prior findings, O/O hazard ratios among gonadectomized versus intact dogs were larger for males than females. O/O risk varied according to breed size but not linearly. Sterilizing at 1 year old tended to yield a lower O/O risk compared to doing so later. Comparative O/O risk among dogs gonadectomized at 6 months versus 1 year varied by breed size. Overall patterns for obesity related to size were similar to patterns in the O/O analysis.


Veterinarians are uniquely positioned to help prevent O/O in their patients. Results extend understanding of risk factors for O/O development in dogs. In combination with information about other benefits and risks associated with gonadectomy, these data can help tailor recommendations regarding gonadectomy in individual dogs.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association