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- Author or Editor: João L. Brandão x
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To determine the prevalence of pectoral girdle fractures in wild passerines found dead following presumed window collision and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of various radiographic views for diagnosis of pectoral girdle fractures.
Cadavers of 103 wild passerines that presumptively died as a result of window collisions.
Seven radiographic projections (ventrodorsal, dorsoventral, lateral, and 4 oblique views) were obtained for each cadaver. A necropsy was then performed, and each bone of the pectoral girdle (coracoid, clavicle, and scapula) was evaluated for fractures. Radiographs were evaluated in a randomized order by a blinded observer, and results were compared with results of necropsy.
Fifty-six of the 103 (54%) cadavers had ≥ 1 pectoral girdle fracture. Overall accuracy of using individual radiographic projections to diagnose pectoral girdle fractures ranged from 63.1% to 72.8%, sensitivity ranged from 21.3% to 51.1%, and specificity ranged from 85.7% to 100.0%. The sensitivity of using various combinations of radiographic projections to diagnose pectoral girdle fractures ranged from 51.1% to 66.0%; specificity ranged from 76.8% to 96.4%.
Radiography alone appeared to have limited accuracy for diagnosing fractures of the bones of the pectoral girdle in wild passerines after collision with a window. Both individual radiographic projections and combinations of projections resulted in numerous false negative but few false positive results.
To determine whether a stainless steel implant sterilized with a novel cold atmospheric plasma sterilization (CAPS) device adversely affects local tissues in rabbits and whether CAPS was as effective as steam sterilization with an autoclave to inactivate Pasteurella multocida.
31 healthy New Zealand White rabbits.
Steam-autoclaved stainless steel implants inoculated with P multocida underwent a second steam autoclave sterilization (AIA) or CAPS (AICAPS). One AIA implant and 3 AICAPS implants were randomly placed subcutaneously at 4 sites in 21 rabbits (84 implants). These rabbits were monitored daily for 5 days for evidence of systemic illness and local tissue reactions at the implantation sites and then euthanized. Samples were taken from each implant site for bacterial culture and histologic examination.
Cultures of samples obtained from all sites were negative for bacterial growth. No significant difference was observed in mean skin thickness or erythema between AIA and AICAPS implant sites on any observed day. Also, individual histologic grades for the epidermis, dermis, subcutis, and muscle and total histologic grade were not significantly different between AIA and AICAPS implant sites.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Cold atmospheric plasma sterilization was noninferior to steam sterilization of P multocida–contaminated stainless steel implants in the rabbits in the present study. However, studies of the efficacy of CAPS for inactivation of other important bacteria are needed.
To compare mineral types of naturally occurring uroliths in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) from North America, Europe, and Asia and to identify potential risk factors associated with cystine urolithiasis in ferrets.
1,054 laboratory submission records of uroliths obtained from ferrets between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2018.
For this cross-sectional study, the medical records databases at 4 diagnostic laboratories were searched for records of submissions of uroliths obtained from ferrets. Data collection included submission date; ferret sex, neuter status, and age; receiving laboratory and continent; and urolith mineral type. Regression analyses were performed to identify variables associated with cystine uroliths.
Of the 1,054 urolith submissions, 1,013 were from North America, with 92.6% (938/1,013; 95% CI, 90.8% to 94.1%) cystine uroliths, and 41 were from Europe and Asia, with only 26.8% (11/41; 95% CI, 15.7% to 41.9%) cystine uroliths. Median age was 2.0 years for ferrets with cystine urolithiasis versus 4.0 years for those with other types of uroliths. Submissions were more likely cystine uroliths for ferrets in North America versus Europe and Asia (adjusted OR [aOR], 59.5; 95% CI, 21.4 to 165.6), for ferrets that were younger (aOR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.77), or for submissions in 2018 versus 2010 (aOR, 21.1; 95% CI, 5.1 to 87.9).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that the proportion of submissions that were cystine uroliths dramatically increased in North America between 2010 and 2018. There is an urgent need to determine underlying causes and mitigate cystine urolithiasis in ferrets.