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  • Author or Editor: Jimmy H. H. Saunders x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine the detailed computed tomography (CT) anatomy of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint in healthy horses.

Sample Population—10 cadaveric forelimbs from 10 adult horses without orthopedic disease.

Procedures—CT of the MCP joint was performed on 4 forelimbs. In 1 of the limbs, CT was also performed after intra-articular injection of 30 mL of contrast medium (40 mg of iodine/mL). Transverse slices 1-mm thick were obtained, and sagittal and dorsal planes were reformatted with a slice thickness of 2 mm. The CT images were matched with corresponding anatomic slices from 6 additional forelimbs.

Results—The third metacarpal bone, proximal sesamoid bones, and proximal phalanx could be clearly visualized. Common digital extensor tendon; accessory digital extensor tendon; lateral digital extensor tendon; superficial digital flexor tendon (including manica flexoria); deep digital flexor tendon; branches of the suspensory ligament (including its attachment); extensor branches of the suspensory ligament; collateral ligaments; straight, oblique, and cruciate distal sesamoidean ligaments; intersesamoidean ligament; annular ligament; and joint capsule could be seen. Collateral sesamoidean ligaments and short distal sesamoidean ligaments could be localized but not at all times clearly identified, whereas the metacarpointersesamoidean ligament could not be identified. The cartilage of the MCP joint could be assessed on the postcontrast sequence.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CT of the equine MCP joint can be of great value when results of radiography and ultrasonography are inconclusive. Images obtained in this study may serve as reference for CT of the equine MCP joint.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare clinical usefulness of ultrasonography versus radiography for detection of fragmentation of the dorsal aspect of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints in horses.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—36 horses with fragmentation of the MCP (n = 19) and MTP (29) joints.

Procedures—In all joints, radiography (4 standard projections) and ultrasonography were performed prior to arthroscopic examination and fragment removal. Number and location of fragments identified radiographically and ultrasonographically were compared with arthroscopic findings.

Results—Radiographic and arthroscopic findings were in agreement with respect to both number and location of fragments in 21 of the 48 (44%) joints. Ultrasonographic and arthroscopic findings were in agreement with respect to number and location of fragments for 46 of the 48 (96%) joints. In the remaining 2 joints, arthroscopy revealed additional fragments that were not identified ultrasonographically. When ultrasonographic findings were compared with radiographic findings, more fragments were seen ultrasonographically in 3 joints and fewer fragments were seen ultrasonographically in 1 joint. Ultrasonographic findings also confirmed the absence (4 joints) or presence (3 joints) of fragmentation at the dorsoproximal aspect of the joint that had been suspected on the basis of radiographic findings. Ultrasonography was also able to determine the location of the fragments in the joints where this was not possible radiographically.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the present study suggested that ultrasonography was a useful method for determining the number and location of fragments in horses with dorsal fragmentation of the MCP or MTP joint.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare computed tomography (CT) images of equine tarsi with cross-sectional anatomic slices and evaluate the potential of CT for imaging pathological tarsal changes in horses.

Sample—6 anatomically normal equine cadaveric hind limbs and 4 tarsi with pathological changes.

Procedures—Precontrast CT was performed on 3 equine tarsi; sagittal and dorsal reconstructions were made. In all limbs, postcontrast CT was performed after intra-articular contrast medium injection of the tarsocrural, centrodistal, and tarsometatarsal joints. Images were matched with corresponding anatomic slices. Four tarsi with pathological changes underwent CT examination.

Results—The tibia, talus, calcaneus, and central, fused first and second, third, and fourth tarsal bones were clearly visualized as well as the long digital extensor, superficial digital flexor, lateral digital flexor (with tarsal flexor retinaculum), gastrocnemius, peroneus tertius, and tibialis cranialis tendons and the long plantar ligament. The lateral digital extensor, medial digital flexor, split peroneus tertius, and tibialis cranialis tendons and collateral ligaments could be located but not always clearly identified. Some small tarsal ligaments were identifiable, including plantar, medial, interosseus, and lateral talocalcaneal ligaments; interosseus talocentral, centrodistal, and tarsometatarsal ligaments; proximal and distal plantar ligaments; and talometatarsal ligament. Parts of the articular cartilage could be assessed on postcontrast images. Lesions were detected in the 4 tarsi with pathological changes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CT of the tarsus is recommended when radiography and ultrasonography are inconclusive and during preoperative planning for treatment of complex fractures. Images from this study can serve as a CT reference, and CT of pathological changes was useful.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effectiveness of infusion of 1 and 2% enilconazole for treatment of nasal and sinusal aspergillosis, respectively, in dogs.

Design—Case series.

Animals—26 client-owned dogs with aspergillosis.

Procedure—All dogs had typical clinical signs of aspergillosis and rhinoscopically visible intrasinusal or intranasal fungal plaques associated with turbinate destruction. During rhinoscopy, affected nasal cavities and frontal sinuses were debrided meticulously. Nineteen dogs (group A) were treated with 1% enilconazole by use of a modified noninvasive infusion procedure. Seven dogs (group B) were treated with 2% enilconazole via catheters that were placed via endoscopic guidance into the frontal sinuses. All dogs underwent follow-up rhinoscopy for determination of further treatment until cure was established.

Results—Age, disease duration, clinical score, and rhinoscopic score were similar for both groups before treatment. In group A, 17 of 19 dogs were cured; 9, 6, and 2 dogs were cured after 1, 2, or 3 treatments, respectively. The remaining 2 dogs were euthanatized before the end of the treatment protocol. In group B, all dogs were cured; 6 dogs and 1 dog were cured after 1 or 2 treatments, respectively. Only minor adverse effects such as nasal discharge, epistaxis, and sneezing developed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—After extensive rhinoscopic debridement, 1 and 2% enilconazole infused into the nasal cavities and the frontal sinuses, respectively, were effective for treatment of aspergillosis in dogs. Intrasinusal administration via endoscopically placed catheters appeared to require fewer infusions for success. Follow-up rhinoscopy is strongly advised. (J Am Med Vet Assoc 2002;221:1421–1425)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To use computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to provide a detailed description of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses in clinically normal mesaticephalic dogs.

Animals—2 clinically normal Belgian Shepherd Dogs that weighed 25 and 35 kg, respectively.

Procedure—The first dog was anesthetized and positioned in ventral recumbency for CT and MRI examinations, and transverse slices were obtained from the caudal part of the frontal sinuses to the nares. For MRI, T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and proton-density sequences were obtained. The second dog was anesthetized and positioned in dorsal recumbency with the head perpendicular to the table, and CT and MRI examinations were again conducted. At the completion of the MRI examination, each dog received an IV injection of heparin and then was euthanatized. A 4% solution of formaldehyde was perfused IV immediately after each dog was euthanatized. The skull was prepared, decalcified, embedded with gelatin, and sectioned into 5-mmthick sections by use of a stainless-steel knife. Each anatomic section was photographed and compared with the corresponding CT and MRI views.

Results—Structures on the CT and MRI views matched structures on the corresponding anatomic sections. The CT scans provided good anatomic detail of the bony tissues, and MRI scans were superior to CT scans for determining soft-tissue structures.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CT and MRI provide a means for consistent evaluation of all structures of the nasal cavities and frontal sinuses. Both techniques could be useful for evaluation of diseases that affect the nasal region. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1093–1098)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine radiographic vertebral ratio values representing vertebral canal stenosis in Doberman Pinschers with and without clinical signs of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy (CCSM).

Animals—Doberman Pinschers with (n = 81) and without (39) signs of CCSM.

Procedures—All dogs underwent lateral survey radiography of the cervical vertebral column. Five specific measurements were made at C3 through C7, and from those data, 3 ratios were calculated and analyzed for use in diagnosis of CSSM: canal height-to-vertebral body height ratio (CBHR), canal height-to-vertebral body length ratio (CBLR), and caudal vertebral canal height-to-cranial vertebral canal height ratio (CCHR). The CBHR and CBLR were considered indicators of vertebral canal stenosis, and CCHR described vertebral canal shape.

Results—Compared with Doberman Pinschers without CCSM, mean CBHR and CBLR values were significantly smaller for Doberman Pinschers with CCSM; for CBHR, this difference was evident at each assessed vertebra. The CCHR value for C7 was significantly larger in dogs with CCSM. Receiver operating characteristic statistics did not identify a threshold point that had combined high sensitivity and specificity sufficient to differentiate between Doberman Pinschers with and without CCSM.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Doberman Pinschers with CCSM had vertebral canal stenosis combined with a funnel-shaped vertebral canal at C7 significantly more often than did Doberman Pinschers without CCSM. Despite these significant differences, no reliable threshold ratio values were identified to differentiate groups of dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the feasibility of quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) for detection of changes in renal blood flow in dogs before and after hydrocortisone administration.

Animals—11 Beagles

Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups: oral administration of hydrocortisone (9.6 mg/kg; n = 6) or a placebo (5; control group) twice a day for 4 months, after which the dose was tapered until treatment cessation at 6 months. Before treatment began and at 1, 4, and 6 months after, CEUS of the left kidney was performed by IV injection of ultrasonography microbubbles. Images were digitized, and time-intensity curves were generated from regions of interest in the renal cortex and medulla. Changes in blood flow were determined as measured via contrast agent (baseline [background] intensity, peak ntensity, area under the curve, arrival time of contrast agent, time-to-peak intensity, and speed of contrast agent transport).

Results—Significant increases in peak intensity, compared with that in control dogs, were observed in the renal cortex and medulla of hydrocortisone-treated dogs 1 and 4 months after treatment began. Baseline intensity changed similarly. A significant increase from control values was also apparent in area under the curve for the renal cortex 4 months after hydrocortisone treatment began and in the renal medulla 1 and 4 months after treatment began. A significant time effect with typical time course was observed, corresponding with the period during which hydrocortisone was administered. No difference was evident in the other variables between treated and control dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Quantitative CEUS allowed detection of differences in certain markers of renal blood flow between dogs treated orally with and without hydrocortisone. Additional studies are needed to investigate the usefulness of quantitative CEUS in the diagnosis of diffuse renal lesions.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess vascular changes induced by hyperadrenocorticism of hyperplastic adrenal glands in dogs via contrast-enhanced ultrasonography.

Animals—12 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) and 7 healthy control dogs ≥ 7 years old.

Procedures—Dogs were assigned to the PDH and control groups and to small-breed (n = 6), medium-breed (4), and large-breed (9) subgroups. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of both adrenal glands in each dog was performed with IV injections of contrast agent. Time-intensity curves for the adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla, and ipsilateral renal artery of both adrenal glands were generated. Perfusion variables (time to peak [TTP], upslope of wash-in phase, and downslope of washout phase) were calculated.

Results—Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography revealed no qualitative difference between PDH and control groups. Quantitatively, TTPs were longer in the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla of the PDH group, compared with values for the control group, particularly in the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla of the small-breed subgroup. Washout downslopes were lower for the renal artery, adrenal cortex, and adrenal medulla of the small-breed subgroup between the PDH and control groups. No other perfusion variables differed between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the adrenal glands in dogs with PDH revealed a delayed TTP in the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla, compared with values for control dogs. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was able to detect vascular changes induced by hyperadrenocorticism. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether reference ranges for clinically normal dogs and dogs with PDH can be determined and applied in clinical settings.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research