Objective—To evaluate the effects of sequential anesthesia of the individual compartments of the equine stifle joint on lameness induced by intra-articular deposition of interleukin (IL)-1β.
Procedures—For each horse, baseline hind limb lameness was first evaluated. A randomly selected compartment of 1 stifle joint was then injected with IL-1β to induce synovitis and lameness; subsequently, the same compartment was anesthetized with 2% mepivacaine hydrochloride, and lameness was reevaluated. Two weeks later, baseline lameness was evaluated, and lameness was similarly induced; thereafter, the 2 synovial compartments of the stifle joint not injected with IL-1β were anesthetized sequentially in random order (ie, first and second blocks); lameness was evaluated after each block. Finally, the IL-1β–treated compartment was anesthetized (third block); lameness was again evaluated. This second experiment was repeated for the contralateral stifle joint 2 weeks later. Throughout the study, lameness was quantified objectively by assessing vertical pelvic movement asymmetry with a wireless, inertial sensor-based system.
Results—Intra-articular deposition of IL-1β induced lameness in all injected limbs. In the first experiment, anesthesia of the compartment injected with IL-1β resulted in a significant decrease in lameness, with vertical pelvic movement asymmetry approaching baseline. In the second experiment, lameness improved significantly after the second and third blocks and was almost completely abolished after all 3 synovial compartments were anesthetized.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses, lameness caused by a lesion in 1 compartment of a stifle joint can be improved more by instillation of local anesthetic solution into that compartment than by anesthesia of the other compartments.
Objective—To evaluate the effects of focused, extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on the healing of wounds of the distal portion of the limbs in horses.
Design—Randomized controlled trial.
Animals—6 healthy adult horses.
Procedures—In each horse, a 4-cm-diameter full-thickness wound that included underlying periosteum was created on the dorsomedial aspect of each metacarpus and two 3-cm-diameter full-thickness wounds that included underlying periosteum were created on the dorsomedial aspect of each metatarsus. One randomly selected metacarpal wound and a randomly selected pair of metatarsal wounds were treated once weekly with ESWT at an energy flux density of 0.11 mJ/mm2. For metacarpal wounds, swab specimens were collected for bacterial culture on days 1, 2, and 3 and area of epithelialization and extent of wound contraction were measured at 3- to 4-day intervals. Metatarsal wounds were biopsied after 2 and 4 weeks, and immunohistochemical staining for vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-β1, and insulin-like growth factor-1 was performed.
Results—Results of bacterial culture, area of epithelialization, and percentage of wound contraction did not differ between treated and untreated wounds; however, healing time for treated wounds (mean, 76 days) was significantly shorter than healing time for untreated wounds (90 days). Staining intensity of growth factors did not differ significantly between treated and untreated wounds.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings suggested that ESWT may stimulate healing of wounds of the distal portion of the limbs in horses, although the mechanism by which healing was stimulated could not be identified.
Case Description—A 12-year-old 500-kg (1,100-lb) American Quarter Horse mare was evaluated because of chronic mucopurulent, bloody discharge from the left nostril, inspiratory dyspnea, and respiratory noise.
Clinical Findings—The horse had severe inspiratory dyspnea and stertorous respiration with no airflow from the left nostril. A temporary tracheostomy was performed. Endoscopy revealed a tan mass protruding from the left middle nasal meatus into the left common nasal meatus; it extended caudally into the nasopharynx and around the caudal edge of the nasal septum into the right nasal cavity. Radiographically, a soft tissue opacity was evident in most of the left nasal cavity and left paranasal sinuses. Cytologic examination of mass tissue revealed evidence of pyogranulomatous rhinitis; thickly encapsulated, budding yeast typical of Cryptococcus neoformans were detected.
Treatment and Outcome—While the horse was sedated and in a standing position, the fungal granuloma was removed from the paranasal sinuses. Treatment with fluconazole (5 mg/kg [2.27 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h for 4 weeks) was initiated; enilconazole (50 mL of a 10% solution) was instilled into the paranasal sinuses every other day (7 lavages). Six weeks after surgery, infection had not recurred and epithelialization appeared normal in the left paranasal sinuses.
Clinical Relevance—In horses with cryptococcosis of the paranasal sinuses, surgical removal of granulomatous lesions and systemic and topical administrations of antifungal drugs may be curative. Successful surgery may be performed in standing horses. Concommitant removal of a large portion of the conchae allows follow-up rhinoscopic evaluation of the paranasal sinuses.
Objective—To determine the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on full-thickness skin grafts applied to fresh and granulating wounds of horses.
Procedures—On day 0, two 4-cm-diameter circular sections of full-thickness skin were removed from each of 2 randomly selected limbs of each horse, and two 4-cm-diameter circular skin grafts were harvested from the pectoral region. A skin graft was applied to 1 randomly selected wound on each limb, leaving the 2 nongrafted wounds to heal by second intention. On day 7, 2 grafts were harvested from the pectoral region and applied to the granulating wounds, and wounds grafted on day 0 were biopsied. On day 14, 1 wound was created on each of the 2 unwounded limbs, and the wounds that were grafted on day 7 were biopsied. All 4 ungrafted wounds (ie, 2 fresh wounds and 2 wounds with 1-week-old granulation beds) were grafted. The horses then received HBOT for 1 hour daily at 23 PSI for 7 days. On day 21, the grafts applied on day 14 were biopsied.
Results—Histologic examination of biopsy specimens revealed that grafts treated with HBOT developed less granulation tissue, edema, and neovascularization, but more inflammation. The superficial portion of the graft was also less viable than the superficial portion of those not treated with HBOT.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The use of HBOT after full-thickness skin grafting of uncompromised fresh and granulating wounds of horses is not indicated.
OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of stacked wedge pads and chains applied to the forefeet of Tennessee Walking Horses on behavioral and biochemical indicators of pain, stress, and inflamation.
ANIMALS 20 Tennessee Walking Horses.
PROCEDURES Horses were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups: keg shoes (control; n = 10) or stacked wedge pads and exercise with chains (10). Ten days before treatment application, an accelerometer was attached at the left metatarsus of each horse to record daily activity. Horses were exercised for 20 minutes daily, beginning on day -7. On day 0, exercise ceased, the forefeet were trimmed, and the assigned treatment was applied. From days 1 through 5, horses were exercised as before. Blood samples for measurement of plasma cortisol, substance P, and fibrinogen concentrations were collected on days -5, 1, and 5 before and after exercise and every 30 minutes thereafter for 6 hours.
RESULTS No significant differences in plasma concentrations of cortisol, substance P, and fibrinogen were detected between groups. Although lying behaviors changed after shoes were applied, these behaviors did not differ significantly between groups. Shoeing appeared to have altered behavior to a greater extent than did the type of treatment applied.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Application of stacked wedge pads and chains to the forefeet of horses for a 5-day period as performed in this study evoked no acute or subacute stress or nociceptive response as measured. Although these findings should not be extrapolated to the long-term use of such devices in Tennessee Walking Horses performing the running walk, the data should be considered when making evidence-based decisions relating to animal welfare and the use of stacked wedge pads and chains.
To examine changes occurring in normal pelvic suspensory ligaments (SLs) of horses after denervating these ligaments and to investigate the effect chronic inflammation might have on these changes.
The SL of 1 randomly selected pelvic limb of each of 5 horses was injected with collagenase to induce desmitis, and 42 days later, the proximal aspect of both pelvic SLs were denervated. The SLs were harvested 120 days after being denervated, and the morphological and histological characteristics of each collagenase-injected, denervated SL were compared with those of the contralateral, non-injected, denervated SL. All denervated SLs were compared with non-denervated pelvic SLs harvested from 5 horses similar in weight and age.
The mean width and the cross-sectional area of the musculature of all denervated SLs were significantly less than that of the non-denervated ligaments. The mean thickness of collagenase-injected denervated ligaments, but not that of the non-injected denervated ligaments, was significantly less than that of the non-denervated ligaments. Histological abnormalities typical of neurogenic muscular atrophy were observed in all denervated ligaments.
Loss of motor neuronal input to the proximal aspect of the SL of the pelvic limb of horses causes neurogenic atrophy of the musculature in that portion of the ligament. Denervating a SL of a pelvic limb may weaken the ligament, increasing its risk of injury. Chronic inflammation of the SL before neurectomy may exacerbate atrophy of the musculature after neurectomy.