OBJECTIVE To determine brain region affinity for and retention of gadolinium in dogs after administration of gadodiamide and whether formalin fixation affects quantification.
ANIMALS 14 healthy dogs.
PROCEDURES 13 dogs received gadodiamide (range, 0.006 to 0.1 mmol/kg, IV); 1 control dog received a placebo. Dogs received gadodiamide 3 to 7 days (n = 8) or 9 hours (5) before euthanasia and sample collection. Brain regions were analyzed with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and transmission electron microscopy. Associations between dose, time to euthanasia, and gadolinium retention quantities (before and after fixation in 5 dogs) were evaluated.
RESULTS Gadolinium retention was seen in all brain regions at all doses, except for the control dog. Exposure 3 to 7 days before euthanasia resulted in 1.7 to 162.5 ng of gadolinium/g of brain tissue (dose-dependent effect), with cerebellum, parietal lobe, and brainstem affinity. Exposure 9 hours before euthanasia resulted in 67.3 to 1,216.4 ng of gadolinium/g of brain tissue without dose dependency. Transmission electron microscopy revealed gadolinium in examined tissues. Fixation did not affect quantification in samples immersed for up to 69 days.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Gadodiamide exposure resulted in gadolinium retention in the brain of healthy dogs. Cerebellum, parietal lobe, and brainstem affinity was detected with dose dependency only in dogs exposed 3 to 7 days before euthanasia. Fixation had no effect on quantification when tissues were immersed for up to 69 days. Physiologic mechanisms for gadolinium retention remained unclear. The importance of gadolinium retention requires further investigation.
OBJECTIVE To compare biomechanical and histologic features of heart valves and echocardiographic findings between Quarter Horses with and without heritable equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA).
DESIGN Prospective case-control study.
ANIMALS 41 Quarter Horses.
PROCEDURES Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of aortic and mitral valve leaflets was assessed by biomechanical testing in 5 horses with HERDA and 5 horses without HERDA (controls). Histologic evaluation of aortic and mitral valves was performed for 6 HERDA-affected and 3 control horses. Echocardiography was performed in 14 HERDA-affected and 11 control horses. Biomechanical data and echocardiographic variables of interest were compared between groups by statistical analyses,
RESULTS Mean values for mean and maximum UTS of heart valves were significantly lower in HERDA-affected horses than in controls. Blood vessels were identified in aortic valve leaflets of HERDA-affected but not control horses. Most echocardiographic data did not differ between groups. When the statistical model for echocardiographic measures was controlled for body weight, mean and maximum height and width of the aorta at the valve annulus in short-axis images were significantly associated with HERDA status and were smaller for affected horses.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Lower UTS of heart valves in HERDA-affected horses, compared with those of control horses, supported that tissues other than skin with high fibrillar collagen content are abnormal in horses with HERDA. Lack of significant differences in most echocardiographic variables between affected and control horses suggested that echocardiography may not be useful to detect a substantial loss of heart valve tensile strength. Further investigation is warranted to confirm these findings. Studies in horses with HERDA may provide insight into cardiac abnormalities in people with collagen disorders.