Objective—To determine the role of rhinoscopic evaluation and repeated serologic testing in assessing the success rate of intranasally administered clotrimazole for treatment of dogs with nasal aspergillosis.
Design—Prospective case series.
Animals—23 dogs with nasal aspergillosis.
Procedures—Dogs with nasal aspergillosis were treated with an intranasal infusion of 1% clotrimazole solution. Response to treatment was assessed with repeated rhinoscopic evaluation, with histologic examination and fungal culture when available. Results of repeated serologic testing for aspergillosis were monitored throughout the treatment course.
Results—11 of the 23 (48%) dogs had no rhinoscopic evidence of disease after the first treatment. Three of 7 dogs were free of disease after the second treatment, and 1 of 3 dogs was free after the third treatment. Presence or absence of nasal discharge and results of repeated serologic testing were not consistent with disease status. Overall, the efficacy of intranasally administered clotrimazole for treatment of nasal aspergillosis could be confirmed in 15 of 17 dogs. Delayed recurrence or reinfection was confirmed in 3 of 15 dogs. When recurrences were taken into account, the success rate was 67% (12/15 dogs).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Clinical signs were not predictive of disease state, and follow-up rhinoscopy is recommended to assess response to treatment. The success rate of intranasally administered clotrimazole was similar to rates in previous reports; however, the number of dogs with recurrent disease was relatively high. Monitoring of the results of serologic testing is not recommended for use in determining response to treatment.
Objective—To compare the sensitivity and specificity of serologic evaluation and fungal culture of tissue for diagnosis of nasal aspergillosis in dogs.
Animals—58 dogs with nasal discharge and 26 healthy dogs.
Procedures—Dogs with nasal discharge were anesthetized and underwent computed tomography and rhinoscopy; nasal tissues were collected for histologic examination and fungal culture. Sera were assessed for antibodies against Aspergillus spp (healthy dog sera were used as negative control specimens). Nasal aspergillosis was diagnosed in dogs that had at least 2 of the following findings: computed tomographic characteristics consistent with aspergillosis, fungal plaques detected during rhinoscopy, and histologically detectable fungal hyphae in nasal tissue. Histologic characteristics of malignancy were diagnostic for neoplasia. Without evidence of neoplasia or fungal disease, nonfungal rhinitis was diagnosed.
Results—Among the 58 dogs, 21 had nasal aspergillosis, 25 had nonfungal rhinitis, and 12 had nasal neoplasia. Fourteen aspergillosis-affected dogs and 1 dog with nonfungal rhinitis had serum antibodies against Aspergillus spp. Fungal culture results were positive for Aspergillus spp only for 17 dogs with aspergillosis. With regard to aspergillosis diagnosis, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 67%, 98%, 93%, and 84%, respectively, for serum anti-Aspergillus antibody determination and 81%, 100%, 100%, and 90%, respectively, for fungal culture.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that seropositivity for Aspergillus spp and identification of Aspergillus spp in cultures of nasal tissue are highly suggestive of nasal aspergillosis in dogs; however, negative test results do not rule out nasal aspergillosis.