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  • Author or Editor: Jill E. Sackman x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Evaluation of urethral pressure profilometry (upp) with simultaneous fine-wire electromyography of the external urethral sphincter (eus) was conducted in 11 healthy adult male cats sedated with xylazine and ketamine. A 3.5-F urethral catheter with a closed end and two 1-mm sideports was infused with sterile 0.9% NaCl solution at a rate of 2 to 3 ml/min. A fine-wire electromyographic (emg) electrode was placed percutaneously into or near the external urethral sphincter prior to the onset of the upp. The maximal urethral pressure achieved and functional profile length were recorded from upp. Setting both catheter withdrawal rate and paper speed at 5 mm/s enabled the measurement of actual urethral length directly from upp. Sphincter emg activity was rated as slight ( + ), moderate (+ +), or intense (+ + +). All recordings were replicated once during each trial for 8 cats and trials were replicated 5 to 7 days later in 4 cats.

Before catheterization, emg activity of the external urethral sphincter was rated slight ( + ), whereas intense (+ + +) activity accompanied insertion. The activity evoked by movement of the catheter subsided, but intense emg activity of the external urethral sphincter was recorded from onset to completion of catheter withdrawal in all cats in both trials. The mean maximal urethral pressure was 93.1 ± 13.29 cm H20. The mean function urethral length was 8.1 ± 0.93 cm. Maximal urethral pressure or function profile length did not differ significantly between recordings within trials or between trials. Simultaneous recording of emg activity and upp of the external urethral sphincter was shown to be a simple, noninvasive technique for assessing neuromuscular and anatomic urethral function.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Electromyographic (emg) evaluation of the external urethral sphincter (eus) was conducted during cystometry in 11 adult male cats sedated with xylazine and ketamine. A percutaneously placed antepubic catheter was used for bladder infusion and recording intravesicular pressures during cystometrography (cmg). A fine-wire electrode was placed percutaneously into or near the eus for recording emg during cmg. The bladder was infused with sterile 0.9% NaCl solution at a rate of 2 to 3 ml/min until a detrusor reflex was initiated. Intravesicular pressures at the onset of infusion, immediately prior to micturition, at the onset of urine flow, and at the maximal voiding pressure were recorded. The time from infusion to micturition, from opening pressure to return to baseline, and from the beginning to the end of the cmg were also recorded. The total volume of 0.9% NaCl solution infused and the residual bladder volume after micturition were also measured. Recordings were replicated once during each trial in all cats, and trials were replicated once approximately 1 week later in 4 cats.

Micturition patterns were characterized by slight to moderate eus emg activity during vesicular filling, with reduction in activity during emptying. Maximal emg activity was recorded at the completion of the reflex and was associated with pulsatile expulsion of small amounts of urine. The simultaneous recording of cmg and eus emg with fine-wire electrodes was simple and reliable for assessing the neuromuscular integrity and synchrony of detrusor and eus muscles. There were no significant differences in variables between recordings within trial 1, but there were differences (P ≤ 0.05) between trials for pressure at the onset of urine flow and maximal voiding pressure.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research