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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of dogs undergoing surgical ligation for a left-to-right shunting patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), identify risk factors for intraoperative hemorrhage and intra- and postoperative complications, and report overall mortality rates.

ANIMALS

417 client-owned dogs undergoing surgical ligation for a left-to-right shunting PDA between January 2010 and January 2020.

PROCEDURES

Data recorded included patient signalment, echocardiogram findings, intraoperative complications and mortality, postoperative complications, and short- and long-term outcomes.

RESULTS

There was no association between age and risk of intraoperative hemorrhage (P = .7), weight and intraoperative hemorrhage (P = .96), or increasing left atrium-to-aortic (LA:Ao) ratio and intraoperative hemorrhage (P = .08). Intraoperative hemorrhage occurred in 10.8% of patients. Intraoperative mortality was 2%. Ninety-five percent of dogs experiencing intraoperative hemorrhage survived to discharge. Survival to discharge was 97%. One- and 5-year survival rates were 96.4% and 87%, respectively.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Surgical ligation for a left-to-right shunting PDA is recommended due to the good long-term prognosis. Certain preoperative factors such as age, weight, and the presence and degree of mitral valve regurgitation had no detectable association with risks of intraoperative hemorrhage and, therefore, should not preclude surgical treatment for a left-to-right shunting PDA. Future studies are needed to further assess the association between increasing LA:Ao ratio and risk of intraoperative hemorrhage.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify risk factors for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) among horses examined at 11 equine referral hospitals.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—183 horses with EPM, 297 horses with neurologic disease other than EPM (neurologic controls), and 168 horses with non-neurologic diseases (non-neurologic controls) examined at 11 equine referral hospitals in the United States.

Procedures—A study data form was completed for all horses. Data were compared between the case group and each of the control groups by means of bivariate and multivariate polytomous logistic regression.

Results—Relative to neurologic control horses, case horses were more likely to be ≥ 2 years old and to have a history of cats residing on the premises. Relative to non-neurologic control horses, case horses were more likely to be used for racing or Western performance.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that cats may play a role in the natural epidemiology of EPM, that the disease is less common among horses < 2 years of age relative to other neurologic diseases, and that horses used for particular types of competition may have an increased risk of developing EPM.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association