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  • Author or Editor: Jihye Nam x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess effects of catheter diameter and injection rate of flush solution (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution) on renal contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with perfluorobutane in dogs.

ANIMALS

5 healthy Beagles.

PROCEDURES

CEUS of the kidneys was performed by IV injection of contrast medium (0.0125 mL/kg) followed by injection of 5 mL of saline solution at rates of 1, 3, and 5 mL/s through a 20-gauge or 24-gauge catheter; thus, CEUS was repeated 3 times for each catheter diameter. Time-intensity curves were created for regions of interest drawn in the renal cortex and medulla. Repeatability was determined by calculating the coefficient of variation (CV). Statistical analysis was used to assess whether perfusion variables or CV of the perfusion variables was associated with catheter diameter or injection rate.

RESULTS

Perfusion variables did not differ significantly between catheter diameters. Time to peak enhancement (TTP) in the renal cortex was affected by injection rate, and there were significantly lower values for TTP at higher injection rates. The CEUS variables with the lowest CVs among injection rates were TTP for the renal cortex; the CV for TTP of the renal cortex was the lowest at an injection rate of 5 mL/s.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Use of a 24-gauge catheter did not alter CEUS with perfluorobutane; therefore, such catheters could be used for CEUS of the kidneys of small dogs. Moreover, a rate of 5 mL/s is recommended for injection of flush solution to obtain greater accuracy for renal CEUS in Beagles.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate effects of airway pressure on contrast enhancement and diameter of the pulmonary artery and determine the optimal airway pressure for pulmonary CT angiography in dogs.

ANIMALS

8 healthy Beagles.

PROCEDURES

Thoracic CT was performed at end-expiration (0 cm H2O) and 2 positive-pressure end-inspirations (10 and 20 cm H2O). Attenuation curves of enhancement for the sinus of the pulmonary trunk artery were obtained by use of a bolus technique. Contrast medium (300 mg of I/kg) was administered IV, and CT imaging began at the time of peak enhancement. At each pressure, time to peak enhancement, ratio of blood flow from the caudal vena cava to the right side of the heart (KCdVC), and enhancement characteristics and diameter changes of the pulmonary artery were evaluated.

RESULTS

All dogs had a significant delay for time to peak enhancement in the sinus of the pulmonary trunk artery as airway pressure increased. The KCdVC progressively increased as airway pressure increased, and there was low contrast enhancement and increased pulmonary artery filling defects at 20 cm H2O. All pulmonary arteries had marked increases in diameter as pressure increased. Arterial distensibility in the gravity-dependent cranial lung region was greater than that in the gravity-independent caudal lung region at the 2 positive-pressure end-inspirations.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Airway pressure affected time to peak enhancement, KCdVC, contrast enhancement, and pulmonary artery diameter. Results suggested that 10 cm H2O could be an optimal pressure for evaluation of the pulmonary artery of dogs by use of CT angiography. (Am J Vet Res 2019;80;756–763)

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the change in the lumbosacral angle (ΔLSA) and conus medullaris (CM) displacement in healthy dogs undergoing dynamic MRI with changes in the posture of their pelvic limbs from neutral posture to flexion or extension posture and to evaluate for potential correlation between ΔLSA and CM displacement.

ANIMALS

9 healthy adult Beagles.

PROCEDURES

Dogs underwent dynamic MRI with their pelvic limbs positioned in neutral, flexion, and extension postures. From T2-weighted sagittal midline plane MRI images, 2 observers measured the lumbosacral angle and CM location in duplicate for each posture for each dog. Intra- and interobserver agreement was assessed, and the Spearman rank correlation coefficient (ρ) was used to assess for potential correlation between ΔLSA and CM displacement for changes in pelvic limb posture from neutral to flexion or extension.

RESULTS

Overall, the mean ΔLSA and CM displacement for changes in posture were 23° and 9.09 mm (caudal displacement) for the change from neutral to flexion posture, 8.4° and −2.5 mm (cranial displacement) for the change from neutral to extension posture, and 32.2° and 11.64 mm (caudal displacement) for the change from extension to flexion posture. The ΔLSA strongly correlated (ρ = 0.705; 95% CI, 0.434 to 0.859) with displacement of the CM.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The use of dynamic MRI, compared with conventional MRI, will better help to characterize clinically normal and abnormal features of the lumbosacral region of the vertebral column and associated spinal cord during postural changes. Further, when limited translocation of the CM is evident on dynamic MRI, veterinarians should suspect underlying lumbosacral pathophysiologic processes or anatomic abnormalities.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research