CASE DESCRIPTION A 7-year-old sexually intact female snow leopard (Panthera uncia) was examined because of blepharospasm, periocular discharge, ventral deviation of the upper eyelid cilia, third eyelid prolapse, and corneal opacity of the right eye.
CLINICAL FINDINGS An ophthalmic examination performed with the patient anesthetized revealed a 3 × 3-mm ulcer that extended approximately 60% of the depth of the right cornea and was accompanied by perilesional and intralesional cellular infiltrates and active vascularization. The upper eyelid of the right eye also had a previously repaired coloboma resulting in trichiasis.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Surgical intervention was elected after 5 weeks of medical management including topical administration of autologous serum and topical, subconjunctival, and systemic administration of antimicrobials failed to yield any improvement in the ulcer. Equine amniotic membrane free-island graft placement and eyelid revision surgeries were performed. Two and a half weeks later, a descemetocele was diagnosed ventrolateral to the original ulcer, and a second equine amniotic membrane free-island grafting procedure was performed. Both grafts healed without further intervention.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE Equine amniotic membrane free-island grafts were used to successfully repair a corneal ulcer and descemetocele in a snow leopard. The grafting procedure spared the affected globe and resulted in satisfactory cosmesis and functional vision. This procedure should be considered as an option for corneal repair in nondomestic species for which postoperative care and medical treatment options are limited.
To identify genetic associations with primary glaucoma (PG) in American Cocker Spaniels using a genome-wide association study (GWAS).
A nationwide ambidirectional case–control cohort study was performed in American Cocker Spaniels that had an ophthalmic examination performed by a veterinarian. Ninety-four dogs with PG (cases) and 111 dogs without glaucoma (controls) met phenotypic criteria and had a blood sample collected after receiving informed owner consent.
Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood samples and genotyped (CanineHD BeadChip, Illumina Inc). A case–control GWAS using a linear mixed model was performed, and 3 significance thresholds were calculated (1) using a Bonferroni correction on all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) included in the GWAS, (2) using a Bonferroni correction on only the unlinked SNPs from a pruned data set, and (3) using 10,000 random phenotype permutations.
Following genotype data quality control, 89 cases and 93 controls were included in the GWAS. We identified an association on canine chromosome (CFA10); however, it did not reach statistical significance. Potential candidate genes within the surrounding linkage disequilibrium interval include coiled-coil domain containing 85A (CCDC85A) and extracellular growth factor containing fibulin extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1).
Primary glaucoma in the American Cocker Spaniel is a complex heterogeneous disease that may be influenced by a locus on CFA10. The candidate genes CCDC85A and EFEMP1 within the identified linkage disequilibrium interval have been shown to be involved in human open-angle glaucoma.