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- Author or Editor: Jessica M. Quimby x
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Objective—To evaluate differences in pulse rate, rectal temperature, respiratory rate, and systolic arterial blood pressure in dogs between the home and veterinary hospital environments.
Design—Prospective observational study.
Animals—30 client-owned healthy dogs.
Procedures—Study dogs had respiratory rate, pulse rate, rectal temperature, and systolic arterial blood pressure measured in their home environment. Dogs were then transported to the veterinary hospital, and measurements were repeated.
Results—Significant differences in blood pressure, rectal temperature, and pulse rate were observed between measurements obtained in the home and hospital environments. Mean blood pressure increased by 16% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.8% to 24%), rectal temperature increased by < 1% (95% CI, 0.1% to 0.6%), and pulse rate increased by 11% (95% CI, 5.3% to 17.6%). The number of dogs panting in the hospital environment (19/30 [63%]) was significantly higher than the number of dogs panting in the home environment (5/30 [17%])
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the present study suggested that practitioners should consider stress from transportation and environmental change when canine patients have abnormalities of vital signs on initial examination, and the variables in question should be rechecked before a definitive diagnosis of medical illness is reached or extensive further workup is pursued.
Objective—To compare the efficacy and adverse effects of sustained-release (SR) buprenorphine following SC administration and buprenorphine following oral transmucosal (OTM) administration in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.
Animals—21 young healthy female cats.
Procedures—As part of anesthetic premedication (0 hours), 10 cats received buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg) via OTM administration with additional doses at 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 hours and 11 cats received an equivalent total dose as a single SC injection of SR buprenorphine (0.12 mg/kg). The SR product contained buprenorphine hydrochloride in a proprietary SR matrix. All other anesthetic drugs and a single postoperative dose of meloxicam were administered similarly to all cats. Behavioral and physiologic variables were recorded, and signs of pain were assessed by use of 2 pain assessment scales and von Frey filament testing in each cat prior to premedication administration (baseline), during recovery from anesthesia (RFA), and at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hours.
Results—Heart rate increased and temperature (determined via microchip transponder thermometry) decreased from baseline values during RFA in both groups. Compared with baseline values, pain scores were increased during RFA and at the 12- and 24-hour time points in both groups; von Frey scores were higher during RFA. Behavioral and physiologic variables did not differ significantly between groups at any time point.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy, SC administration of a preoperative dose of SR buprenorphine appeared to have comparable efficacy and adverse effect profile as that of twice-daily OTM administration of buprenorphine before and after surgery.
To assess whether hyperinoculation of cats with a feline herpesvirus-1, calicivirus, and panleukopenia virus (FVRCP) vaccine could be used as a model to study interstitial nephritis and to assess humoral and cell-mediated immune responses toward vaccinal α-enolase.
6 healthy young adult purpose-bred research cats.
Baseline renal cortical biopsies, whole blood, serum, and urine were collected prior to administration of a commercial FVRCP parenteral vaccine. Vaccine hyperinoculation was defined as a total of 8 vaccinations given at 2-week intervals over a 14-week period. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to each vaccination, and a second renal biopsy was performed 2 weeks after hyperinoculation (week 16). Renal histopathology, renal α-enolase immunohistochemistry, and assays to detect humoral and cell-mediated immune reactions against Crandell-Rees feline kidney (CRFK) cell lysates and α-enolase were performed. An α-enolase immunoreactivity score for renal tubules and glomeruli based on signal intensity was determined by a blinded pathologist.
Hyperinoculation with the vaccine was not associated with clinicopathologic evidence of renal dysfunction, and interstitial nephritis was not recognized by light microscopy in the time studied. The mean serum absorbance values for antibodies against CRFK antigen and α-enolase were significantly (P < 0.001) higher at weeks 4, 8, and 16 versus week 0. Renal tubular and glomerular α-enolase immunoreactivity scores were higher at week 16 compared to baseline.
Findings suggested that systemic immunological reactions occurred and renal tissues were affected by vaccine hyperinoculation; however, short-term FVRCP vaccine hyperinoculation cannot be used to study interstitial nephritis in cats.
To characterize uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) in cases of clinical feline urinary tract infection (UTI) and subclinical bacteriuria and investigate the in vitro effects of E coli strain Nissle 1917 on isolate growth.
40 cats with positive E coli culture results for urine collected during routine evaluation.
Characterization of UPEC isolates was performed by PCR-based phylotype analysis and serotyping. Nissle 1917 effects on growth inhibition and competitive overgrowth against UPEC isolates were evaluated in vitro using a plate-based competition assay.
Feline phylogroups were similar to previous human and feline UPEC studies, with most of the isolates belonging to phylogroup A (42.5%), B2 (37.5%), and D (15.0%). Fifty-two percent of isolates were found to be resistant to antimicrobials, with 19% of these being multidrug resistant (MDR). Nissle 1917 adversely affected the growth of 82.5% of all isolates and 100% of MDR isolates in vitro. The median zone of inhibition was 3.33 mm (range, 1.67 to 10.67 mm). Thirteen isolates were affected via competitive overgrowth and 20 via growth inhibition.
UPEC isolates from cats were similar in phylogroup analysis to human and dog isolates. The in vitro effects of Nissle 1917 on UPEC warrant additional studies to determine if similar results can be duplicated in vivo.