To retrospectively describe ocular abnormalities reported in dogs with presumed dysautonomia.
79 dogs with dysautonomia.
Medical records from the Kansas State University Veterinary Health Center from 2004 to 2021 were reviewed for dogs with a clinical or histopathologic diagnosis of canine dysautonomia (CD). Ophthalmic exam abnormalities, nonocular clinical signs, and outcomes were recorded.
Most dogs (73/79 [92.4%]) with CD exhibited at least 1 ocular abnormality. The most common ocular abnormalities were diminished pupillary light reflexes (PLRs) in 55 of 79 (69.6%) dogs and elevation of the third eyelids in 51 of 79 (64.6%) dogs. Schirmer tear test values were bilaterally decreased in 32 of 56 (57.1%) dogs. Other ocular abnormalities included resting mydriasis, ocular discharge, photophobia, blepharospasm, corneal ulceration, and conjunctival vessel pallor. The most common nonocular clinical signs were vomiting or regurgitation in 69 of 79 (87.3%) and diarrhea in 34 of 79 (43.0%) dogs. Pharmacologic testing with dilute 0.01%, 0.05%, or 0.1% pilocarpine yielded pupillary constriction in 42 of 51 (82.4%) dogs. Thirty-two of 79 (40.5%) dogs survived to discharge. Resolution of ocular abnormalities was variable.
Ophthalmic abnormalities such as diminished PLRs, elevation of the third eyelids, and decreased tear production are commonly associated with CD and provide support for its antemortem clinical diagnosis, though dogs with normal PLRs can be diagnosed with the disease. Pharmacologic testing with dilute topical pilocarpine in dogs with clinical signs suggestive of dysautonomia supports a diagnosis of CD. Ophthalmic abnormalities may improve or resolve over time.
To determine the effect of topical ophthalmic administration of 0.005% latanoprost solution on aqueous humor flow rate (AHFR) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in ophthalmologically normal dogs.
12 adult Beagles.
In a masked crossover design involving two 10-day experimental periods separated by a 7-day washout period, dogs were randomly assigned to first receive latanoprost or artificial tears (control) solution and then the opposite treatment in the later experimental period. Each experimental period was divided into a baseline phase (days 1 to 3), baseline fluorophotometry assessment (day 4), treatment phase (1 drop of latanoprost or artificial tears solution administered twice daily in each eye on days 5 to 9 and once on day 10), and posttreatment fluorophotometry assessment (day 10). Measured fluorescein concentrations were used to calculate baseline and posttreatment AHFRs. The IOP was measured 5 times/d in each eye during baseline and treatment (days 5 to 9) phases.
Mean baseline and posttreatment AHFR values did not differ significantly in either experimental period (latanoprost or control). In the latanoprost period, mean IOP was significantly lower during treatment than at baseline; there was no difference in corresponding IOP values during the control period. In the latanoprost period, mean IOP was significantly higher on the first day of treatment than on subsequent treatment days.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
In ophthalmologically normal dogs, topical ophthalmic administration of 0.005% latanoprost solution significantly decreased IOP but did not affect AHFR. Thus, the ocular hypotensive effect of latanoprost did not appear to have been caused by a reduction in aqueous humor production. (Am J Vet Res 2019;80:498–504)
To investigate the effects of short-term and prolonged topical instillation of 0.1% diclofenac sodium, 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine, and 0.03% flurbiprofen sodium on corneal sensitivity (CS) in ophthalmologically normal cats.
12 healthy adult domestic shorthair cats.
In the first of 2 study phases, each cat received 0.1% diclofenac sodium, 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine, 0.03% flurbiprofen sodium, and saline (0.9% NaCl; control) solutions (1 drop [0.05 mL]/eye, q 5 min for 5 treatments) in a randomized order with a 2-day washout period between treatments. For each cat, an esthesiometer was used to measure CS before treatment initiation (baseline) and at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after the last dose. There was a 2-day washout period between phases. The second phase was similar to the first, except each treatment was administered at a dosage of 1 drop/eye, twice daily for 5 days and CS was measured before treatment initiation and at 15 minutes and 24 and 48 hours after the last dose. The Friedman test was used to evaluate change in CS over time.
None of the 4 treatments had a significant effect on CS over time in either study phase.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that neither short-term nor prolonged topical instillation of 3 NSAID ophthalmic solutions had any effect on the CS of healthy cats. Given potential differences in cyclooxygenase expression between healthy and diseased eyes, further investigation of the effects of topical NSAID instillation in the eyes of cats with ocular surface inflammation is warranted.
Case Description—5 cats from the same household were examined because of a sudden onset of tremors, obtundation, blindness, and dilated pupils. Approximately 12 hours prior to evaluation, the owner had attempted to treat the cats for suspected ear mite (Otodectes cynotis) infestation by aural administration of a dose of an ivermectin paste intended for oral administration to horses (approx 22 mg/cat; half of the dose was administered into each ear canal).
Clinical Findings—None of the cats had a menace response; all cats had dilated pupils and decreased pupillary light reflexes. Findings of fundic examination were unremarkable. Electroretinography was performed for 4 cats, and b-wave responses were identified as diminished. Toxicological assay results for serum samples from 2 cats confirmed the presence of ivermectin (450 and 610 μg/L).
Treatment and Outcome—All 5 cats made a complete recovery. Neurologic abnormalities resolved, electroretinographic responses improved, and vision was restored with no residual pathological changes detected during fundic examination.
Clinical Relevance—To the authors’ knowledge, the information reported here provided the first description of ophthalmic and electroretinographic findings in cats with ivermectin toxicosis resulting from transdermal administration. Clinical signs, including blindness, resolved with time, without additional medical intervention.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of topical ophthalmic application of 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride solution (PHCL; containing 0.01% benzalkonium chloride as preservative) on aerobic bacterial culture results for naturally occurring infected corneal ulcers in dogs.
DESIGN Clinical trial.
ANIMALS 25 client-owned dogs with infected corneal ulcers (24 unilaterally affected and 1 bilaterally affected; only 1 eye included/dog) examined between June 2008 and May 2011.
PROCEDURES Swab samples for aerobic bacterial culture were collected from the periphery of each corneal ulcer before and approximately 1 minute after topical ophthalmic application of 1 drop of PHCL. Numbers of aerobic bacterial species isolated from affected eyes were compared between sample collection points and between other variables (ie, side [left or right] of affected eye, prior treatments, and patient age, sex, and neuter status).
RESULTS There was no significant difference between numbers of aerobic bacterial species isolated per eye or overall aerobic bacterial culture results (positive or negative) before versus after PHCL application. Similarly, prior treatment had no significant effect on aerobic bacterial culture results for samples collected at either point. The most commonly isolated bacteria before and after PHCL application were Staphylococcus spp (40% and 48%, respectively), followed by Streptococcus spp (23% and 22%, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Topical ophthalmic application of PHCL did not significantly affect aerobic bacterial culture results for naturally occurring infected corneal ulcers in dogs as assessed in this study. Therefore, topical ophthalmic PHCL application could be useful in clinical settings prior to sample collection to relieve patient discomfort and to aid in sample acquisition without compromising aerobic bacterial culture results.
To quantify plasma concentrations of prednisolone and dexamethasone (peripheral and jugular) and cortisol following topical ophthalmic application of 1% prednisolone acetate and 0.1% dexamethasone to healthy adult dogs.
12 purpose-bred Beagles.
Dogs received 1 drop of 1% prednisolone acetate (n = 6) or neomycin polymyxin B dexamethasone (ie, 0.1% dexamethasone; 6) ophthalmic suspension in both eyes every 6 hours for 14 days. Blood samples (peripheral and jugular) were collected on days 0, 1, 7, and 14 and analyzed for plasma prednisolone and dexamethasone concentrations. Plasma cortisol concentrations were measured at the beginning of the study and following topical drug administration.
Both drugs demonstrated systemic absorption. Prednisolone was detected on days 1, 7, and 14 (median plasma concentration, 24.80 ng/mL; range, 6.20 to 74.00 ng/mL), and dexamethasone was detected on days 1, 7, and 14 (2.30 ng/mL; 0 to 17.70 ng/mL). Neither prednisolone nor dexamethasone were detected in plasma samples on day 0 (baseline). Sampling from the jugular vein resulted in higher plasma drug concentrations than from a peripheral vein when samples from each day were combined. Plasma cortisol concentrations were significantly lower than baseline following 14 days of treatment with topical prednisolone acetate and dexamethasone.
Prednisolone and dexamethasone are detected in the plasma of healthy dogs following topical ophthalmic administration 4 times/d with prednisolone concentrations being close to a physiologic dose of orally administered prednisolone. Additional research is needed to evaluate the systemic absorption of these medications in dogs with ocular inflammation.
To evaluate the effects of injectable dexmedetomidine-ketamine-midazolam (DKM) and isoflurane inhalation (ISO) anesthetic protocols on selected ocular variables in captive black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus; BTPDs).
9 zoo-kept BTPDs.
The BTPDs received dexmedetomidine hydrochloride (0.25 mg/kg, IM), ketamine hydrochloride (40 mg/kg, IM), and midazolam hydrochloride (1.5 mg/kg, IM) or inhalation of isoflurane and oxygen in a randomized complete crossover design (2-day interval between anesthetic episodes). Pupil size, globe position, tear production, and intraocular pressure measurements were recorded at 5, 30, and 45 minutes after induction of anesthesia. For each BTPD, a phenol red thread test was performed in one randomly selected eye and a modified Schirmer tear test I was performed in the other eye. Intraocular pressure was measured by rebound tonometry.
Compared with findings for the DKM protocol, pupil size was smaller at all time points when the BTPDs underwent the ISO protocol. Globe position remained central during anesthesia with the DKM protocol, whereas it varied among central, ventromedial, and ventrolateral positions during anesthesia with the ISO protocol. Tear production and intraocular pressure decreased significantly over time when the BTPDs underwent either protocol.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that ophthalmic examination findings for anesthetized BTPDs can be influenced by the anesthetic protocol used. The DKM protocol may result in more consistent pupil size and globe position, compared with that achieved by use of the ISO protocol. Tear production and intraocular pressure measurements should be conducted promptly after induction of anesthesia to avoid the effect of anesthetic episode duration on these variables.
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of oral administration of robenacoxib on inhibition of anterior chamber paracentesis (ACP)-induced breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier (BAB) and assess whether robenacoxib can cross an intact BAB in healthy cats.
ANIMALS 12 healthy adult domestic shorthair cats.
PROCEDURES Cats received robenacoxib (6-mg tablet in a treat, PO; n = 6) or a control treatment (treat without any drug, PO; 6) once daily for 3 days, beginning 1 day before ACP. One eye of each cat served as an untreated control, whereas the other underwent ACP, during which a 30-gauge needle was used to aspirate 100 μL of aqueous humor for determination of robenacoxib concentration. Both eyes of each cat underwent anterior chamber fluorophotometry at 0 (immediately before), 6, 24, and 48 hours after ACP. Fluorescein concentration and percentage fluorescein increase were used to assess extent of ACP-induced BAB breakdown and compared between cats that did and did not receive robenacoxib.
RESULTS Extent of BAB breakdown induced by ACP did not differ significantly between cats that did and did not receive robenacoxib. Low concentrations of robenacoxib were detected in the aqueous humor (mean, 5.32 ng/mL; range, 0.9 to 16 ng/mL) for 5 of the 6 cats that received the drug.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that oral administration of robenacoxib did not significantly decrease extent of BAB breakdown in healthy cats. Detection of low robenacoxib concentrations in the aqueous humor for most treated cats indicated that the drug can cross an intact BAB.
To evaluate and compare regulation of diabetes mellitus (DM) in dogs with cataracts and well-controlled DM that received an ophthalmic preparation of prednisolone acetate versus diclofenac sodium.
22 client-owned dogs with cataracts and well-controlled DM.
A prospective, randomized, double-masked, experimental study was conducted. On days 0 and 32, serum fructosamine concentrations (SFCs), clinical scores, and body weights were determined. Dogs were assigned to receive a topically administered ophthalmic preparation of either prednisolone acetate 1% or diclofenac sodium 0.1% in each eye 4 times daily for 28 days. Data analysis was conducted with generalized linear mixed models.
Findings indicated no meaningful differences in SFCs, clinical scores, or body weights between the treatment groups on days 0 or 32. Clinical score on day 0 was positively associated with SFC, as indicated by the corresponding rate of change such that each 1 -unit increase in clinical score was associated with an approximately 45.6 ± 9.4 μmol/L increase in SFC. In addition, the least squares mean ± SEM SFC was higher in spayed females (539.20 ± 19.23 μmol/L; n = 12) than in castrated males (458.83 ± 23.70 μmol/L; 8) but did not substantially differ between sexually intact males (446.27 ± 49.72 μmol/L; 2) and spayed females or castrated males regardless of the treatment group assigned.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Findings indicated no evidence for any differential effect on DM regulation (assessed on the basis of SFCs, clinical scores, and body weights) in dogs treated topically with an ophthalmic preparation of prednisolone versus an ophthalmic preparation of diclofenac. Additional research investigating plasma concentrations of topically applied ophthalmic glucocorticoid medications is warranted. (Am J Vet Res 2019;80:1129-1135)