Objective—To measure thiamine concentrations in commercial canned foods formulated for cats as an initial assessment of the variation among canned foods and to determine the effects of flavor (fish vs nonfish) of the food, texture (paté vs nonpaté) of the food, country of manufacture, and size of the company on thiamine concentration.
Design—Prospective cross-sectional study.
Sample—90 canned, nontherapeutic diets formulated for cats (1 fish and 1 nonfish flavor for each of 45 brands).
Procedures—Each canned food was homogenized, and thiamine concentration was analyzed with a fluorometric method.
Results—Thiamine concentration was below the minimums of the Association of American Feed Control Officials in 12 of 90 (13.3%) foods and below the recommended allowance of the National Research Council in 14 of 90 (15.6%) foods. Paté foods had significantly lower thiamine concentrations than did nonpaté foods, and foods from smaller companies had significantly lower thiamine concentrations, compared with concentrations in foods from larger companies. Flavor of food and country of manufacture were not significantly associated with thiamine concentration.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A wide range of thiamine concentrations was found in the foods evaluated. Thiamine concentration in a substantial percentage of commercially available canned foods was below the amount recommended for adult cats. Additional research on interlot and intralot variation in thiamine concentrations of foods formulated for cats is warranted. Companies should implement strict quality control and analysis practices regarding food products. Clinicians should consider thiamine deficiency as a differential diagnosis in a cat with acute neurologic dysfunction.
In past years, nutritional deficiencies were considered to be an important problem in dogs and cats. Currently, most pet owners in many countries, such as the United States and Canada, feed nutritionally balanced commercial pet foods. As a result, nutritional deficiencies have become uncommon because reputable pet food manufacturers regularly test their products to ensure that they contain adequate amounts of all nutrients. Anecdotally, most reported deficiencies currently arise from animals eating incomplete or unbalanced homemade, vegetarian, or raw meat diets. Therefore, veterinarians may not consider deficiencies as differential diagnoses in animals eating traditional commercial diets. However, thiamine (vitamin B
Objective—To estimate the prevalence of canine parvovirus (CPV) strains among dogs with enteritis admitted to a referral hospital in the southwestern United States during an 11-month period and to compare diagnostic test results, disease severity, and patient outcome among CPV strains.
Design—Prospective observational study.
Animals—72 dogs with histories and clinical signs of parvoviral enteritis.
Procedures—For each dog, a fecal sample or rectal swab specimen was evaluated for CPV antigen via an ELISA. Subsequently, fecal samples (n = 42 dogs) and pharyngeal swab specimens (16) were obtained and tested for CPV antigen via an ELISA and CPV DNA via a PCR assay. For specimens with CPV-positive results via PCR assay, genetic sequencing was performed to identify the CPV strain.
Results—56 dogs tested positive for CPV via ELISA or PCR assay. For 42 fecal samples tested via both ELISA and PCR assay, 27 had positive results via both assays, whereas 6 had positive PCR assay results only. Ten pharyngeal swab specimens yielded positive PCR assay results. Genetic sequencing was performed on 34 fecal or pharyngeal swab specimens that had CPV-positive PCR assay results; 25 (73.5%) were identified as containing CPV type-2c, and 9 (26.5%) were identified as containing CPV type-2b. No association was found between CPV strain and disease severity or clinical outcome.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CPV type-2b and CPV type-2c posed similar health risks for dogs; therefore, genetic sequencing of CPV does not appear necessary for clinical management of infected patients. The diagnostic tests used could detect CPV type-2c.
Case Description—A 9-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of hematuria and weight loss after an 8-year history of intermittent signs of feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD). A complete diet history revealed that the cat was eating a commercial diet that does not undergo the same processing procedures as most pet foods and so might be at increased risk for bacterial contamination owing to a nonstandard industry cooking procedure.
Clinical Findings—The cat had a history consistent with FLUTD, but bacteriologic culture of the urine revealed Salmonella organisms. Additional analysis revealed Salmonella enterica serotype I:ROUGH-O:g,m,s:- in samples of urine and feces as well as Salmonella enterica serotype Johannesburg and Salmonella enterica serotype Senftenberg in the diet.
Treatment and Outcome—The cat responded positively to antimicrobial treatment for the Salmonella bacteriuria as well as to dietary and environmental management for the clinical signs associated with FLUTD.
Clinical Relevance—Findings in this case highlighted an additional health consequence associated with ingestion of Salmonella-contaminated food. Such contamination is of particular concern with raw meat–based diets or diets that have not undergone standard industry cooking practices. Veterinarians should obtain a diet history for every companion animal during every evaluation to help with diagnosis and optimal treatment. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;247:525–530)