A 3-year-old 17.5-kg (38.5-lb) mixed-breed dog was referred for evaluation because of nasal discharge, sneezing, and signs of nasal congestion of approximately 9 months’ duration. A diagnosis of nasopharyngeal stenosis (NPS) was made prior to referral.
Sneezing, bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, reduced nasal airflow, stertor, and increased inspiratory effort were noted on physical examination. Results of serum biochemical analysis were within respective reference ranges. Review of CT images of the skull revealed findings consistent with severe bilateral partial osseous choanal atresia and NPS. Retrograde rhinoscopy confirmed membranous NPS.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
A ventral rhinotomy was performed; communication between the pharynx and nasal passageway was reestablished by surgical debridement of the caudal border of the palatine bone and vomerine crest and groove, followed by dissection of the membranous NPS and reconstruction of the caudal part of the nasopharynx. A covered nasopharyngeal stent was placed in the newly established nasopharynx. The dog recovered uneventfully but was presented 3 weeks later with recurrent signs; diagnostic findings were consistent with stenosis rostral to the stent. The stenosis was treated with balloon dilation, and a second covered stent was placed rostral to and overlapping the first stent, spanning the stenotic region. Eleven months after this procedure, the dog was doing well.
Results for this patient suggested that ventral rhinotomy and covered nasopharyngeal stent placement can be used successfully for the management of osseous choanal atresia in dogs; however, careful attention to preoperative planning and potential complications is necessary. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:190–196)
To determine whether metronidazole (MTZ), at recommended therapeutic dosages in dogs, induces peripheral blood cell (PMBC) genotoxicity, using the γ-H2AX assay as a sensitive measure of DNA breaks. The secondary aim was to assess dose-dependent genotoxicity in vitro in dog and cat PBMCs exposed to increasing MTZ concentrations.
12 healthy employee- and student-owned dogs and blood samples from 2 other healthy untreated dogs and 2 healthy untreated cats.
Screened dogs were randomized to receive lower-dose MTZ (7.5 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) or higher-dose MTZ (20 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) for 7 days. Blood was drawn at baseline, after the 1 week of treatment, and after a 1-week washout, for DNA damage assessment and serum MTZ concentration measurements. For in vitro studies, PBMCs from untreated healthy dogs and cats were exposed to 0 to 500 μg/mL MTZ.
No dogs showed a significant increase in DNA damage at these MTZ dosages for 1 week. The highest serum MTZ concentration observed 1 hour after dosing was 36 μg/mL. In vitro, MTZ led to a significant increase in DNA damage at 100 μg/mL in both canine and feline PBMCs.
Although MTZ was not significantly genotoxic in vivo in the healthy dogs in this study, MTZ was significantly genotoxic to canine PBMCs in vitro at 3-fold higher concentrations than those documented in vivo. The safety of MTZ in clinically ill dogs, which may have impaired MTZ clearance or DNA repair, should be assessed next.
To describe the current standard of care among specialists for the routine diagnostic evaluation and medical management of stable tracheal collapse in dogs, identifying gaps between practice and scientific evidence to facilitate the development of future prospective studies. A secondary objective was to describe the perceived incidence of selected comorbid disorders in dogs with tracheal collapse and the diagnostic tests performed to evaluate for those disorders.
180 veterinary specialists in 22 countries.
An electronic survey was sent to 4 specialty listservs to target diplomates. Respondents completed multiple-choice and free-response questions related to the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of a theoretical stable dog with suspected tracheal collapse.
Most respondents routinely utilized radiography, tracheobronchoscopy, and fluoroscopy to diagnose tracheal collapse and performed airway sampling, sedated airway examination, and echocardiograms to rule out comorbidities. The most frequently perceived comorbid disorders included chronic bronchitis, bronchomalacia, and myxomatous mitral valve disease. Respondents most often prescribed opioid antitussives, glucocorticoids, anxiolytics, and antibiotics as treatments. Less frequently, they utilized bronchodilators and nonopioid medications for cough.
Despite a lack of published guidelines, specialists have similar approaches in their diagnostic and therapeutic approach to a stable dog with suspected tracheal collapse and believe evaluating for comorbid disorders is important. A description of a typical diagnostic approach and knowledge of realistic treatment goals will assist the general practitioner managing dogs with stable tracheal collapse. Additionally, gaps between current practices established via this survey and data supporting those practices exist, specifically concerning the use of antibiotics and nonopioid medications for cough, representing areas for further study.
3 dogs with chronic sinonasal signs (sneezing, nasal discharge, or epistaxis [or a combination of signs]) were examined.
For all 3 dogs, CT revealed variable degrees of nasal turbinate destruction and frontal sinus involvement with cribriform plate lysis. Fungal plaques were detected during rhinoscopy or sinusoscopy. Results of fungal culture (2 dogs) or cytologic examination of a plaque specimen (1 dog) supported a diagnosis of sinonasal aspergillosis.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
All dogs underwent surgical rhinotomy or sinusotomy (or both) for fungal plaque debridement followed by oral treatment with voriconazole and periodic physical examinations, clinicopathologic analyses, and assessments of serum drug concentrations for a period ≥ 22 weeks. All dogs had considerable to complete reduction of their clinical signs and tolerated voriconazole treatment with minimal adverse effects. Adverse effects included development of reversible neurotoxicosis (associated with high serum voriconazole concentration) and mildly high serum liver enzyme activities. The dosage of voriconazole administered to achieve therapeutic serum concentrations (2.5 to 3.3 mg/kg [1.1 to 1.5 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) was substantially lower than dosages suggested by previously published studies in dogs. The 3 dogs remained clinically normal or had mild clinical signs after voriconazole discontinuation for follow-up times of 6 to 15 months.
Findings in these 3 dogs indicated that surgical fungal plaque debridement followed by oral treatment with voriconazole may be an effective treatment option for dogs with sinonasal aspergillosis and cribriform plate lysis. Further evaluation of this treatment regimen with repeated CT examinations and longer follow-up times is warranted.
To evaluate the effects of withholding food on the results for measurements of serum concentrations of cobalamin, folate, canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI), and canine trypsin-like immunoreactivity (cTLI) in healthy dogs.
11 healthy employee- or student-owned dogs.
Food was withheld from the dogs for 12 hours, baseline blood samples were collected, then dogs were fed. Postprandial blood samples collected 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours later were assessed. A mixed-effects ANOVA model with fasting duration (time) as a fixed factor and dog as a random effect was fit for each analyte variable. Additionally, a mixed-effects ANOVA model controlling for the variable of time was fit to assess whether lipemia affected serum concentrations of the analytes.
The median serum cobalamin concentration was lower at 4 hours (428 ng/L) and 8 hours (429 ng/L) postprandially, compared with baseline (479 ng/L), but this difference was not clinically meaningful. Although there were no substantial differences in serum concentrations of folate, cPLI, or cTLI, postprandial changes in serum concentrations of cTLI or folate could potentially affect diagnoses in some dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Although results indicated that feedings rarely resulted in clinically important differences in the median serum concentrations of cobalamin, folate, cPLI, or cTLI in healthy dogs, given the further processing required for lipemic samples, withholding food for at least 8 hours is an appropriate recommendation when measuring these analytes. Similar research is needed in dogs with gastrointestinal disease to determine whether the withholding of food is necessary when measuring these analytes in affected dogs.