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  • Author or Editor: Jesse P. Goff x
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Abstract

Objective—To compare plasma total calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta hydroxy butyrate (BHB), and glucose concentrations in parturient dairy cows that were fed an anionic prepartum diet between those with and without retained fetal membranes (RFM) at 24 hours after parturition.

Animals—152 Holstein cows that calved during October through December of 1997.

Procedure—All cows were fed an anionic prepartum diet. Blood sample was taken within 6 hours after parturition from randomly selected cows. Thirty-nine cows had a diagnosis of RFM at 24 hours after parturition; 113 were not affected with RFM. At calving, body condition score (BCS; 1 [thin] to 5 [obese]), parity, and calving difficulty score were recorded. Plasma calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, NEFA, BHB, and glucose concentrations were compared between cows with or without RFM.

Results—Cows with RFM had significantly lower plasma calcium concentration soon after calving, compared with cows without RFM. Cows with a parity of ≥ 3 had significantly lower plasma concentrations of calcium and higher concentrations of magnesium, compared with cows with a parity of 1 or 2. Cows with a BCS of ≥ 3.25 at calving had significantly higher plasma concentrations of BHB than cows with a BCS of 2.75 to 3.0. Cows with dystocia had significantly higher plasma concentrations of glucose, compared with cows without dystocia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In parturient cows fed a prepartum anionic diet, those with RFM have lower plasma calcium concentrations than cows without RFM, although this association does not prove a cause-effect relationship. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1071–1076)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Six nonpregnant, nonlactating Jersey cows, averaging 4 to 6 years old, were used to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of recombinant bovine interleukin 1β (rBoIL-1β). Cows were given 166 ng of rBoIL-1β/kg of body weight at 8-hour intervals for 96 hours. Persistent leukocytosis was observed within 3 hours of rBoIL-1 treatment, peaking 24 hours after the first IL-1β injection and returning to baseline values within 72 hours after cessation of IL-1β treatment. Injection of cows with rBoIL-1β stimulated lymphocyte blastogenesis and mitochondrial methyl-thiazoltetrazolium cleavage activity in resting cell cultures. Increases in the aforementioned lymphocyte activities were also observed in stimulated blood mononuclear cell cultures during IL-1β administration. Change in IgM production in cell cultures was not observed during IL-1β treatment. Within 24 hours of the first IL-1β injection, IL-1β mRNA transcription in stimulated blood mononuclear cell cultures was markedly increased, suggesting that IL-1β upregulates its own production in mononuclear cells. These data provide evidence that administration of cytokines, such as rBoIL-1β, enhances immune cell function and, therefore, may be useful in alleviating immunosuppression in cattle.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The immunomodulating polypeptide interleukin 1β (il-1β) has been shown to be homologous to osteoclast-activating factor and is capable of stimulating increased osteoclastic bone resorption. This effect prompted an investigation into the potential use of il-1β for prevention of parturient paresis, a disease of dairy cows characterized by hypocalcemia and poor osteoclastic resorption of bone. Six nonpregnant cows were treated with a high dosage of il-1β (166 ng/kg of body weight) every 8 hours for 4 days. The il-1β treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased urinary hydroxyproline excretion, an index of osteoclast activity, indicating that bone calcium resorption might be stimulated by il-1β treatment of cows. However, il-1β treatment also caused transient fever, inappetence, increased pulse and respiratory rate, and diuresis. The acute, but transient, effect of il-1β treatment was to cause a decrease in plasma calcium and phosphorus concentrations. The pleiotropic effects of il-1β administration negated the positive effects on osteoclastic bone resorption, and indicates that this cytokine may be of minimal benefit for prevention of parturient paresis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether numbers of coliform bacteria in feces of dairy cattle changed during the periparturient period and whether fluctuations were associated with changes in dry-matter intake.

Animals—12 healthy Holstein cows.

Procedure—Fecal samples were collected on a semiregular basis (ie, 3 to 7 times/wk) beginning 4 to 6 weeks before the anticipated parturition date and continuing through the third day (5 cows) or second week (7 cows) after parturition, and total numbers of fecal coliform bacteria were determined. Daily feed intake of 7 cows was monitored.

Results—For 11 cows, fecal coliform bacterial counts between 34 and 25 days prior to parturition were low and relatively constant (< 102 change in number of bacteria). Coliform bacteria were not detected in 4 to 8% of fecal samples from 10 cows. All cows had a 104 to 107 increase in number of colony forming units/g of feces near the time of parturition. Number of fecal coliform bacteria peaked within 7 days of parturition in 9 cows and within 12 days of parturition in 3. Number of fecal coliform bacteria was not correlated with feed intake.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cows may have large increases in fecal coliform bacteria count during the periparturient period; however, periparturient cows do not continually shed high numbers of coliform bacteria, and coliform bacteria may not always be detectable by conventional culture methods. Changes in fecal coliform bacteria count did not correlate with changes in dry-matter intake. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1636–1638)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of a controlled-release monensin capsule administered at cessation of lactation on incidence of calving-related disorders, fertility, and milk yield in dairy cows.

Animals—290 dairy cows treated with monensin and 290 untreated control cows.

Procedure—Treated cows received a capsule that released monensin at 335 mg/d for 95 days. Incidence of calving-related disorders; daily milk yield up to 20 days postpartum; test-day milk yield, fat, protein, and mature-equivalent 305-day milk production; and body condition score at calving were determined. Reproductive variables were conception rate at first service, pregnancy rate, and calving-to-conception interval.

Results—Cows treated with monensin were 2.1 times as likely to develop dystocia and 0.8 times as likely to develop metritis as control cows. For milk yield, there was an interaction of treatment ×time ×parity. In multiparous cows, monensin significantly improved milk yield at test days 4 and 7. In addition, monensin increased body condition score at calving.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Despite increasing the likelihood of developing dystocia and metritis, administration of monensin improved the lactational performance of multiparous cows and may be a promising additive for use at the time of cessation of lactation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To test the ability of oral vaccination or probiotic treatment with lactic acid-producing bacteria to protect calves from Cryptosporidium parvum infection under field conditions.

Animals

134 Holstein calves born on a dairy farm where cryptosporidiosis was endemic.

Procedure

Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups at birth. Calves in the vaccine group received an oral dose of C parvum vaccine within several hours of birth. Calves in the bacteria group received an oral dose of lactic acid-producing bacteria daily for the first 10 days after birth. Control calves were not treated. All calves were monitored for diarrhea and fecal shedding of C parvum oocysts for 3 weeks.

Results

There were no significant differences in the incidence of diarrhea and oocyst shedding among the 3 groups.

Conclusions

Neither vaccination nor probiotic treatment was effective in preventing C parvum infection in calves under field conditions. High numbers of C parvum in the environment may have overwhelmed any potential benefits of these regimens. Further work is necessary to develop effective prophylaxis against C parvum under field conditions. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1586–1588)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research