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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate several practice-adapted assays for determination of passive transfer status in crias.

Animals—24 llama and 9 alpaca crias.

Design—Prospective study.

Procedure—Serum IgG concentration was measured by use of a radial immunodiffusion assay when crias were 45 to 51 hours old. Results were compared with serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity, serum total protein, albumin, globulin, and total solids concentrations, and results of commercially available and traditional sodium sulfite turbidity (SST) tests.

Results—Mean (± SD) serum IgG concentration was 1,762 ± 1,153 mg/dl. On the basis of a threshold value of 1,000 mg of IgG/dl at 48 hours of age, 5 of 33 (15.15%) crias had failure of passive transfer. Serum total solids, protein, and globulin concentrations were significantly associated with serum IgG concentration, whereas serum GGT activity and serum albumin concentration were not. Serum IgG concentrations were significantly different among crias with negative, 2+, and 3+ scores on the traditional SST test. Serum IgG concentrations were not significantly different between crias with negative and 100 mg/dl scores or 100 and 300 mg/dl scores on the commercially available SST test. However, all other comparisons between crias with different scores revealed significant differences. Sensitivity and specificity ranged between 0 and 1, depending on the test and endpoint selected.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The commercially available SST test and determination of serum total protein and globulin concentrations are suitable methods for assessing passive transfer status in llama and alpaca crias. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:559–563)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine percentages of domestic cats and dogs vaccinated against rabies, identify barriers to vaccination, and assess knowledge about rabies in a semirural New Mexico community after a skunk rabies outbreak.

Design—Cross-sectional, door-to-door, bilingual, community-based participatory survey.

Sample—366 residential properties in Eddy County, NM.

Procedures—The New Mexico Department of Health and CDC administered surveys and analyzed data.

Results—Individuals at 247 of the 366 residential properties participated in the survey. One hundred eighty of the 247 (73%) households owned a dog (n = 292) or cat (163). Cats were more likely than dogs to not have an up-to-date rabies vaccination status (prevalence ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.3 to 4.4). Cost and time or scheduling were the most frequently identified barriers to vaccination. One hundred sixty (65%) respondents did not know livestock can transmit rabies, 78 (32%) did not know rabies is fatal, and 89 (36%) did not know a bat scratching a person can be an exposure. Only 187 (76%) respondents indicated they would contact animal control if they saw a sick skunk, and only 166 (67%) indicated they would contact animal control if bitten by a dog they did not own.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings indicated that rabies vaccination prevalence among pet dogs and cats was low, despite the fact that the region had experienced a skunk rabies outbreak during the previous 2 years. In addition, substantial percentages of respondents did not have correct knowledge of rabies or rabies exposure.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association