To investigate the mycobiome of the oral cavity in healthy dogs and dogs with various stages of periodontal disease.
51 dogs without periodontal disease (n = 12) or with mild (10), moderate (19), or severe (10) periodontal disease.
The whole maxillary arcade of each dog was sampled with a sterile swab, and swabs were submitted for next-generation DNA sequencing targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 region with a commercial sequencing platform.
Fungi were detected in all samples, with a total of 320 fungal species from 135 families detected in the data set. No single fungal species was found in all samples. The 3 most frequently found fungal species were Cladosporium sp (46/51 samples), Malassezia restricta (44/51 samples), and Malassezia arunalokei (36/51 samples). Certain fungi, specifically those of the family Didymellaceae, the family Irpicaceae, and the order Pleosporales, were significantly associated with different stages of periodontitis. Mycobial analysis indicated that Cladosporium sp could be considered part of the core oral cavity mycobiome.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results highlighted that fungi are present in the oral cavity of dogs and are characterized by substantial species diversity, with different fungal communities associated with various stages of periodontal disease. The next-generation DNA sequencing used in the present study revealed substantially more species of fungi than previous culture-based studies.
To compare the bacteriome of the oral cavity in healthy dogs and dogs with various stages of periodontal disease.
Dogs without periodontal disease (n = 12) or with mild (10), moderate (19), or severe (10) periodontal disease.
The maxillary arcade of each dog was sampled with a sterile swab, and swabs were submitted for next-generation DNA sequencing targeting the V1–V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene.
714 bacterial species from 177 families were identified. The 3 most frequently found bacterial species were Actinomyces sp (48/51 samples), Porphyromonas cangingivalis (47/51 samples), and a Campylobacter sp (48/51 samples). The most abundant species were P cangingivalis, Porphyromonas gulae, and an undefined Porphyromonas sp. Porphyromonas cangingivalis and Campylobacter sp were part of the core microbiome shared among the 4 groups, and P gulae, which was significantly enriched in dogs with severe periodontal disease, was part of the core microbiome shared between all groups except dogs without periodontal disease. Christensenellaceae sp, Bacteroidales sp, Family XIII sp, Methanobrevibacter oralis, Peptostreptococcus canis, and Tannerella sp formed a unique core microbiome in dogs with severe periodontal disease.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results highlighted that in dogs, potential pathogens can be common members of the oral cavity bacteriome in the absence of disease, and changes in the relative abundance of certain members of the bacteriome can be associated with severity of periodontal disease. Future studies may aim to determine whether these changes are the cause or result of periodontal disease or the host immune response.
ANIMALS 50 purebred Persian (n = 42) and Exotic (8) cats.
PROCEDURES Cats were anesthetized, and a complete dental examination, dental charting, 3-view oral photography, and full-mouth dental radiography were performed.
RESULTS Malocclusions were observed in 36 (72%) cats. Crowding of the teeth was evident in 28 (56%) cats, with the incisors being most commonly affected. Malpositioned teeth were noted in 32 (64%) cats, with abnormal orientation being the most common anomaly followed by rotation and impaction. Numerical abnormalities were present in 38 (76%) cats, including 6 (12%) with hyperdontia and 32 (64%) with hypodontia. Periodontal disease was reported in 44 (88%) cats, and cats with periodontal disease were older than cats without. Tooth resorption was evident in 35 (70%) cats. Overall, 123 of 1,349 (8.7%) teeth had external inflammatory resorption and 82 (6.1%) had external replacement resorption. The premolar teeth were the teeth most commonly affected with inflammatory resorption, whereas the canine teeth were the teeth most commonly affected with replacement resorption.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that because of their brachycephaly, Persian and Exotic cats have unique oral and dental features that may predispose them to dental disease (eg, tooth resorption and periodontal disease). Knowledge of the particular dental anomalies common in brachycephalic cats could aid in early detection and mitigation of dental disease in these breeds.