Case Description—A 3-day-old 9.5-kg (21-lb) female alpaca cria was examined because of lethargy and anorexia.
Clinical Findings—Physical examination revealed hyperthermia, muscle fasciculations, and tremors of the head. Seizures were also observed, which indicated CNS dysfunction. Hyperosmolar syndrome (HOS) was diagnosed on the basis of hyperglycemia, hypernatremia, azotemia, high plasma osmolarity, and metabolic acidosis.
Treatment and Outcome—A constant rate infusion of regular insulin was administered with hypo-osmolar fluids to treat HOS, and blood glucose and sodium concentrations were successfully lowered. Neurologic deficits resolved with treatment, and the cria was discharged 11 days after admission.
Clinical Relevance—Administration of insulin as a bolus in addition to hypo-osmolar fluids has been advocated in the management of neonatal camelids with HOS. Administration of regular insulin via a constant rate IV infusion was used to successfully manage a neonatal camelid with HOS. This form of insulin administration may allow more control of glucose kinetics in these patients.
Objective—To evaluate the effect of frequent milkout
(FMO) on the outcome of experimentally induced
Escherichia coli mastitis in cows.
Design—Randomized complete block study.
Animals—16 Holstein dairy cows.
Procedure—Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4
groups and were either not infected and not treated
(NI-NT), experimentally infected with E coli and not
treated (EC-NT), not infected and FMO (NI-FMO), or
experimentally infected with E coli and FMO (EC-FMO).
The infected quarter in cows in FMO groups
was milked out every 4 hours from 16 to 36 hours and
every 6 hours from 36 to 84 hours after challenge,
with the aid of oxytocin administration. Somatic cell
counts (SCC); times to bacterial, clinical, and systemic
cures; and serum concentrations of α-lactalbumin
Results—Use of FMO did not appear to affect SCC.
For EC-NT and EC-FMO groups, mean bacterial cure
times were 203 and 159 hours, clinical cure times
were 276 and 360 hours, and systemic cure times
were 144 and 159 hours, respectively; these times
were not significantly different. Concentrations of
α-lactalbumin were significantly increased in the EC-NT
group at 12 hours and in the NI-FMO group at 36
and 60 hours after challenge, compared with values
of cows in other treatment groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Compared
with results in control cows, FMO does not appear to
be an efficacious treatment for experimentally
induced moderate to severe E coli mastitis. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2003;222:63–66)