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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effectiveness of manual bladder expression in paraplegic dogs by comparing urine volumes measured by use of intermittent catheterization and ultrasonography.

ANIMALS

36 paraplegic dogs.

PROCEDURES

93 measurements of bladder volume were collected for the 36 dogs. Residual urine volume was determined by use of intermittent urethral catheterization and estimated by use of ultrasonography.

RESULTS

Manual bladder expression voided a mean of 49% of urine from the bladder in this population of dogs. There was no correlation (R 2, 0.06) between the effectiveness of manual bladder expression and body weight. Ultrasonographic estimation of bladder volume had good correlation (R 2, 0.62) with bladder volume determined by use of intermittent bladder catheterization, but clinically unacceptable variation for predicting actual bladder volume (mean difference, 22 mL; 95% confidence interval, −96 to 139 mL).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Manual bladder expression was ineffective at completely emptying urine from the bladder of paraplegic dogs, but the effectiveness of the procedure was not affected by body weight. Manual bladder expression would likely be a useful procedure to prevent increases in pressure within the bladder. Ultrasonographic estimation of bladder volume could be a useful predictor of actual bladder volume, but it was susceptible to wide variations among dogs, and results should therefore be interpreted with caution.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate whether concurrent analysis of CSF samples from 2 collection sites (cerebellomedullary cistern [CMC] and lumbar subarachnoid space [LSS]) versus only 1 site could improve the diagnostic sensitivity of CSF analysis for dogs with suspected steroid-responsive meningitis arteritis (SRMA).

ANIMALS

111 client-owned dogs with SRMA diagnosed at 3 veterinary referral hospitals between 2011 and 2017.

PROCEDURES

Only dogs with CSF collected from both sites (CMC and LSS) and with no previous history of corticosteroid administration were included. Medical record data and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with having a total nucleated cell concentration (TNCC) within the reference interval in a CSF sample from 1 collection site.

RESULTS

The TNCC was within the reference interval (TNCC < 5 cells/μL) in the CSF sample from 1 collection site for 8 of 111 (7%) dogs and was only slightly high (TNCC, 5 to 9 cells/μL) in the sample from 1 or both sites for 10 (11%) other dogs. For each of these 18 dogs, results for samples from 1 site were consistent with SRMA. The proportion of CSF samples that had a TNCC within the reference interval was comparable between sites. As age increased, so did the risk of having an unremarkable TNCC in the CSF sample from 1 site, albeit only slightly (OR, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.16).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

CSF samples from both the CMC and LSS should be analyzed when evaluating dogs with suspected SRMA to improve the chance of detecting a high TNCC.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association