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An approximately 2-year-old 2.93-kg (6.45-lb) spayed female domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of bleeding, crusting, and alopecic lesions of the ears and face of 2 weeks’ duration. The cat was administered a single injection of methylprednisolone a (6.83 mg/kg [3.1 mg/lb], IM) and reexamined 1 month later. At that time, lesions had worsened with marked pruritus indicated by self-trauma (scratching and chewing of the skin) as well as involvement of paw pads, nail beds, and pressure points. Weight loss of 0.57 kg (1.25 lb; 19.4% of body weight) was evident. Prior medical history included ovariohysterectomy and routine

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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A 9-month-old 47-kg (103.4-lb) sexually intact male Great Dane was evaluated because of rapidly progressive ulcerative dermatitis. Initially, lesions developed on the face and subsequently in the interdigital areas of the fore and hind feet. The dog had a recent history of pinna dermatitis, for which topical administration of an antimicrobial-steroid preparation had been prescribed, and vaccination. The day following vaccination and dispensing of the topical medication, the dog developed pinpoint periorbital and pinna lesions that progressed to ulcerations, accompanied by facial swelling. The topical treatment was discontinued, and the dog was administered dexamethasone sodium phosphate (0.7 mg/kg [0.32

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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A 7.5-year-old 20-kg (44-lb) spayed female Shetland Sheepdog with a several-year history of polycyclic to serpiginous ulcerations on the sparsely haired ventral aspect of the abdomen and inguinal region (Figure 1) was evaluated. Microscopic examination of routine biopsy specimens of the lesions revealed marked, lymphocytic interface dermatitis with focal dermal-epidermal separation. The signalment, history, and clinical and histopathologic findings led to a diagnosis of vesicular cutaneous lupus erythematosus (VCLE), and treatment with prednisolone a (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) and cyclosporine b (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) was initiated.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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An apparently healthy 59-week-old Ross 708 broiler breeder hen from the Chicken Educational Unit at the North Carolina State University was part of a randomly selected group of 23 birds used in a teaching laboratory. The hen was euthanized via cervical dislocation, soaked with water (to minimize insulation provided by feathers), and immediately refrigerated. Necropsy was performed approximately 24 hours later.

Clinical and Gross Findings

Body weight and condition of the hen were within expected ranges for a female broiler breeder of this age, and there was minimal postmortem autolysis. The magnum of the oviduct was approximately 30 cm

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether repeated exposure to clinically relevant concentrations of tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) would alter retinal function or induce histologically detectable retinal lesions in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

Design—Prospective, controlled, experimental study.

Animals—18 healthy koi carp.

Procedures—2 fish were euthanized at the start of the study, and eyes were submitted for histologic evaluation as untreated controls. Anesthesia was induced in the remaining fish with 200 mg of MS-222/L and maintained with concentrations of 125 to 150 mg/L for a total exposure time of 20 minutes daily on 1 to 13 consecutive days. On days 1, 7, and 13, electroretinography of both eyes was performed in all fish remaining in the study, and 2 fish were euthanized immediately after each procedure for histologic evaluation of the eyes. Median b-wave amplitudes were compared among study days for right eyes and for left eyes via 1-way repeated-measures ANOVA with a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons.

Results—Median b-wave amplitudes on days 1, 7, and 13 were 17.7, 20.9, and 17.6 μV, respectively, for right eyes and 15.1, 16.9, and 14.3 μV, respectively, for left eyes. No significant differences in b-wave amplitudes were detected among study days. No histopathologic abnormalities were identified in the retinas of any fish treated with MS-222 or in control fish.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Short-term exposure of koi carp to clinically relevant concentrations of MS-222 daily for up to 13 days was not associated with changes in retinal structure or function as measured in this study.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION A 22-year-old male gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) housed in a zoo was evaluated for signs of lethargy, head-holding, and cervical stiffness followed by development of neurologic abnormalities including signs of depression, lip droop, and tremors.

CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination under general anesthesia revealed a tooth root abscess and suboptimal body condition. A CBC and serum biochemical analysis revealed mild anemia, neutrophilia and eosinopenia consistent with a stress leukogram, and signs consistent with dehydration. Subsequent CSF analysis revealed lymphocytic pleocytosis and markedly increased total protein concentration.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Despite treatment with antimicrobials, steroids, and additional supportive care measures, the gorilla's condition progressed to an obtunded mentation with grand mal seizures over the course of 10 days. Therefore, the animal was euthanized and necropsy was performed. Multifocal areas of malacia and hemorrhage were scattered throughout the brain; on histologic examination, these areas consisted of necrosis and hemorrhage associated with mixed inflammation, vascular necrosis, and intralesional amoebic trophozoites. Tan foci were also present in the kidneys and pancreas. Immunohistochemical testing positively labeled free-living amoebae within the brain, kidneys, eyes, pancreas, heart, and pulmonary capillaries. Subsequent PCR assay of CSF and frozen kidney samples identified the organism as Balamuthia mandrillaris, confirming a diagnosis of amoebic meningoencephalitis.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Infection with B mandrillaris has been reported to account for 2.8% of captive gorilla deaths in North America over the past 19 years. Clinicians working with gorillas should have a high index of suspicion for this diagnosis when evaluating and treating animals with signs of centrally localized neurologic disease.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association