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  • Author or Editor: Jeremiah T. Easley x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare IV doses of alfaxalone and ketamine needed to facilitate orotracheal intubation and assess effects of each treatment on selected physiologic variables in goats undergoing orthopedic surgery with isoflurane anesthesia.

ANIMALS

18 healthy adult goats.

PROCEDURES

Behavior was assessed before and after sedation with midazolam (0.1 mg/kg, IV) for IV catheter placement. Anesthesia was induced with additional midazolam (0.1 mg/kg, IV) and alfaxalone (n = 9) or ketamine (9) at 2 mg/kg, IV, over 30 seconds. An additional dose of alfaxalone or ketamine (1 mg/kg) was given IV if needed for intubation; anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen and IV fluids with ketamine (0.5 to 1 mg/kg/h). Direct systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP), and mean (MAP) arterial blood pressures; heart rate; and respiratory rate were recorded before induction, immediately after intubation, and during surgery. Qualitative anesthetic induction and recovery characteristics were assessed. Variables were compared within and between groups by statistical methods.

RESULTS

No preinduction variables differed significantly between groups. Postintubation and 30-minute intraoperative SAP, DAP, and MAP were higher for the ketamine group than for the alfaxalone group; within the alfaxalone group, postintubation SAP, MAP, and respiratory rate prior to mechanical ventilation were lower than respective preinduction values. All alfaxalone-group goats were intubated after 1 dose of the induction agent; 5 of 9 ketamine-group goats required an additional (1-mg/kg) dose. Postoperative recovery was good to excellent for all animals.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Both drugs were suitable for induction of anesthesia after sedation with midazolam, but most goats required higher doses of ketamine to allow intubation. For situations in which alfaxalone administration is appropriate, the potential for decreased arterial blood pressures and respiratory rate should be considered.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe a minimally invasive 3-portal laparoscopic approach for elective ovariohysterectomy and the outcome of that procedure in a population of goats.

DESIGN Descriptive clinical study.

ANIMALS 16 healthy client-owned goats.

PROCEDURES Food but not water was withheld from all goats for 24 hours before the procedure. Goats were anesthetized and positioned in dorsal recumbency. Three laparoscopic portals were created in the caudoventral portion of the abdomen, and the abdomen was insufflated to a maximum pressure of 10 mm Hg. A blunt-tip vessel sealer and divider device was used to transect the left and right mesovarium and mesometrium and uterus, and the resected tissue was removed from the abdomen. After hemostasis was verified, the portals were closed in a routine manner and anesthesia was discontinued. Goats were discharged from the hospital 24 hours after the procedure, and owners were contacted by telephone or email to obtain short- and long-term follow-up information by use of standardized questions.

RESULTS All procedures were performed by a surgeon and assistant surgeon. The procedure was not complex and was easily learned. No intraoperative complications were reported, and only 1 goat required rescue analgesia post-operatively. No other postoperative complications were recorded. Median surgery time was 43 minutes (range, 20 to 65 minutes). All owners were satisfied with the outcome of the procedure, and several perceived that the procedure improved goat behavior.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy was a viable alternative for elective sterilization of female goats.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 4-month-old Hampshire ram underwent open right inguinal herniorrhaphy and unilateral castration following herniation that developed after a kick injury. Seven months later, the ram was reevaluated because of scrotal swelling of 1 month's duration as well as suspected left inguinal hernia.

Clinical Findings—The ram had marked scrotal swelling. Palpation of the left testicle revealed no abnormalities. Ultrasonographic examination revealed heterogenous tissue within the cranial and medial portions of the scrotum with pronounced accumulation of hypoechoic fluid at the scrotal apex. Examination findings indicated left-sided indirect inguinal herniation of omentum.

Treatment and Outcome—To preserve fertility, left inguinal hernioplasty without castration was performed. The ram was anesthetized and placed in dorsal recumbency, and laparoscopic abdominal evaluation revealed omental entrapment within the left inguinal ring. The omentum was removed, and a polypropylene mesh was secured over the internal inguinal ring with an articulating hernia stapler. Following mesh placement, a dorsally based peritoneal flap was elevated and secured over the mesh repair. The ram recovered well from surgery; there was no repeated herniation following the surgical correction, and the ram was able to breed successfully without complication.

Clinical Relevance—Laparoscopic mesh hernioplasty can be successful in rams with inguinal hernias when preservation of fertility is preferred.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To report the clinical outcomes of horses with chronic guttural pouch infection characterized by accumulation of mucopurulent material following transpharyngeal diode laser fenestration.

ANIMALS

13 client-owned horses

PROCEDURES

Horses undergoing diode laser fenestration for chronic guttural pouch infection were identified by medical record search. Signalment, disease history, presence of mucopurulent empyema or chondroids, and pre- and postoperative therapy were recorded. Owners were contacted for follow-up information at a minimum of 6 months following surgery.

RESULTS

13 horses underwent laser fenestration for chronic guttural pouch infection. Thirteen had mucopurulent nasal discharge on presentation, and 3 were coughing. At follow-up, 12 horses treated with transpharyngeal diode laser fenestration had complete resolution of nasal discharge and coughing. One horse, despite resolution of guttural pouch infection on endoscopy, continued to have nasal discharge and coughing attributed to concurrent equine asthma syndrome. All owners expressed satisfaction with the surgical procedure and clinical resolution of guttural pouch infection.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This surgical technique for transpharyngeal diode laser fenestration of the guttural pouch was uncomplicated to perform and well tolerated in sedated horses and attributed to resolution of clinical signs associated with guttural pouch infection, and owners reported a high satisfaction with the clinical outcome. Implementing this surgical technique could be considered to hasten resolution of chronic guttural pouch disease in horses with few technique-related complications.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association