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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine (DXM) and its subsequent reversal with atipamezole (APM) on the echocardiogram and circulating concentrations of cardiac biomarkers in cats.

ANIMALS

14 healthy cats.

PROCEDURES

Cats underwent echocardiography and measurements of circulating cTn-I and NT-proBNP concentrations before (PRE) and during (INTRA) DXM sedation (40 µg/kg IM) and 2 to 4 (2H POST) and 24 (24H POST) hours after reversal with APM.

RESULTS

Administering DXM significantly decreased heart rate, right ventricular and left ventricular (LV) outflow tract velocities, and M-mode–derived LV free-wall thickness; increased LV end systolic diameter and volume; and caused valvar regurgitation. While sedative effects resolved within 25 minutes of APM reversal, the evolution of echocardiographic changes was mixed: LV ejection fraction and mitral valvar regurgitation score were different at 2H POST than at both INTRA and PRE (partial return toward baseline), LV end-diastolic volume was different PRE to INTRA and INTRA to 2H POST but not different PRE to 2H POST (full return toward baseline), and M-mode–derived LV free-wall thickness was significantly different from PRE to INTRA and PRE to 2H POST (no return toward baseline). Serum cTn-I and plasma NT-proBNP concentrations increased significantly with DXM, which remained significant 2H POST.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Administration of DXM and APM reversal produced changes in echocardiographic results and in circulating cTn-I and NT-proBNP concentrations. Understanding these changes could help veterinarians differentiate drug effects from cardiac disease.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To test the hypothesis that feedlot cattle with acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) have bacterial infection of the lung or liver and concurrent bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection significantly more often than pen mates without AIP.

Animals—39 feedlot cattle with signs consistent with AIP and no history of treatment with antimicrobials and 32 healthy control cattle from the same pens.

Procedure—Lung and liver specimens were obtained postmortem for bacterial or mycoplasmal culture and histologic examination; lung tissue was assessed for BRSV infection immunohistochemically.

Results—Among affected cattle, 26 had AIP confirmed histologically. Lung tissue from 11 cattle with AIP yielded microbial respiratory tract pathogens on culture; tissues from control animals yielded no microbial growth. In 4 cattle with AIP and 2 control animals, liver abscesses were detected; bacteria were isolated from abscessed tissue in 3 and 1 of those animals, respectively. Immunohistochemically, 9 cattle with AIP and no control animals were BRSV-positive. Histologically, 9 AIP-affected cattle had only acute alveolar damage with exudation, and the other 17 had acute exudation with type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. No lesions of AIP were detected in control animals. Only 4 AIP-affected cattle had bacterial infection of the lung with concurrent BRSV infection.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that microbial respiratory tract pathogens are more common in cattle with AIP than in healthy pen mates. Control of bacterial pneumonia late in the feeding period may reduce the incidence of AIP at feedlots where AIP is a problem. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1525–1532)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research