Objective—To evaluate the degree of noise to which kenneled dogs were exposed in 2 typical kennels and to determine whether a measurable change in hearing might have developed as a result of exposure to this noise.
Animals—14 dogs temporarily housed in 2 kennel environments.
Procedures—Noise levels were measured for a 6-month period in one environment (veterinary technical college kennel) and for 3 months in another (animal shelter). Auditory brainstem response testing was performed on dogs in the veterinary kennel 48 hours and 3 and 6 months after arrival. Temporal changes in the lowest detectable response levels for wave V were analyzed.
Results—Acoustic analysis of the kennel environments revealed equivalent sound level values ranging between 100 and 108 dB sound pressure level for the 2 kennels. At the end of 6 months, all 14 dogs that underwent hearing tests had a measured change in hearing.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the noise assessments indicated levels that are damaging to the human auditory system. Such levels could be considered dangerous for kenneled dogs as well, particularly given the demonstrated hearing loss in dogs housed in the veterinary kennel for a prolonged period. Noise abatement strategies should be a standard part of kennel design and operation when such kennels are intended for long-term housing of dogs.
Case Description—An 8-year-old spayed female Yorkshire Terrier and 5-year-old castrated male West Highland White Terrier were evaluated because of cyclophosphamide intoxication subsequent to pharmacy error. Both dogs received cumulative doses of approximately 1,080 mg of cyclophosphamide/m2 after cyclophosphamide was erroneously dispensed instead of cyclosporine by different pharmacies.
Clinical Findings—Both dogs became lethargic, and 1 dog also had anorexia, vomiting, and diarrhea within 2 days after initiation of cyclophosphamide administration. The other dog developed anorexia on the seventh day after initiation of cyclophosphamide administration. The dogs were evaluated by their primary-care veterinarians 9 and 11 days after administration of the first dose of cyclophosphamide, and both had severe leukopenia and thrombocytopenia.
Treatment and Outcome—One dog was treated on an outpatient basis with broad-spectrum antimicrobials, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and an appetite stimulant. The other dog was more severely affected and was hospitalized for 7 days, during which it was treated with broad-spectrum antimicrobials, gastroprotectants, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and cryopreserved platelet and packed RBC transfusions. Both dogs fully recovered after treatment.
Clinical Relevance—This was the first report of survival for dogs with inadvertent prolonged cyclophosphamide intoxication subsequent to pharmacy error. Although the 2 dogs had similar clinical signs and clinicopathologic findings, the severity of disease and treatment required differed for each dog. Dogs can recover from prolonged cyclophosphamide intoxication provided appropriate supportive care is administered.
Objective—To investigate the influence of simulated contraction of the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD) muscle on the 3-D motion of the arytenoid cartilage.
Sample Population—5 larynges from equine cadavers.
Procedures—Serial computed tomographic scans of each larynx were conducted at 7 incremental forces simulating contraction of medial, lateral, and combined bellies of the left CAD muscle. Three-dimensional reconstruction of radiopaque markers placed at anatomic landmarks on the left arytenoid and cricoid cartilages enabled quantification of marker displacement according to a Cartesian coordinate system. Rotation (roll, pitch, and yaw) of dorsal and ventral arytenoid planes was calculated relative to a plane formed by the coordinates of 3 markers on the cricoid cartilage by use of Euler angles.
Results—Displacement and rotational data showed that rocking motion occurs throughout arytenoid abduction and most of the rotational component is attributable to pitch; greater pitch was associated with action of the lateral belly. Roll of the ventral arytenoid plane was principally associated with action of the medial belly, which counteracted the tendency of the arytenoid cartilage to rotate medially into the rima glottidis lumen. The distance between markers on the arytenoid cartilage was not constant during contraction because of slight deformation of the corniculate process of the arytenoid cartilage, therefore indicating that the arytenoid cartilage is not a rigid body during abduction.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Arytenoid cartilage abduction was dependent on the rocking motion elicited by the lateral belly of the CAD muscle; therefore, laryngoplasty suture placement should mimic the action of the lateral, rather than the medial, muscle belly. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1003–1010)
Objective—To compare degree of viremia and disease
manifestations in calves with type-I and -II
bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection.
Procedure—Colostrum-deprived calves obtained
immediately after birth were assigned to 1 control
and 3 treatment groups (4 calves/group). Calves in
treatment groups were inoculated (day 0) by
intranasal instillation of 107 median tissue culture
infective dose BVDV 890 (type II), BVDV 7937 (type
II), or BVDV TGAN (type I). Blood cell counts and virus
isolation from serum and leukocytes were performed
daily, whereas degree of viremia was determined
immediately before and 4, 6, 8, and 12 days after
inoculation. Calves were euthanatized on day 12, and
pathologic, virologic, and immunohistochemical
examinations were performed.
Results—Type-II BVDV 890 induced the highest
degree of viremia, and type-I BVDV TGAN induced
the lowest. Virus was isolated more frequently and
for a longer duration in calves inoculated with BVDV
890. A parallel relationship between degree of viremia
and rectal temperature and an inverse relationship
between degree of viremia and blood cell counts was
observed. Pathologic and immunohistochemical
examinations revealed more pronounced lesions and
more extensive distribution of viral antigen in calves
inoculated with type-II BVDV.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Degree of
viremia induced during BVDV infection is associated
with severity of clinical disease. Isolates of BVDV that
induce a high degree of viremia may be more capable
of inducing clinical signs of disease. Strategies (eg,
vaccination) that reduce viremia may control clinical
signs of acute infection with BVDV. (Am J Vet Res