Objective—To investigate the activities of
hyaluronidases in equine sera and synovial fluid samples
and sera from fetal and adult bovids and evaluate
the extent to which the degradation of hyaluronan is
influenced by chondrocytes.
Sample Population—Commercial and noncommercial
samples of equine (n = 6) and bovine (6) sera and
16 synovial fluid samples from horses.
Procedure—Hyaluronidase activities in sera and synovial
fluid samples were assessed via enzyme
zymography (performed at pH 4, 5, 6, or 7).
Chondrocytes were isolated from equine cartilage
and cultured with or without hyaluronan (1 mg/mL);
the degradation of hyaluronan was assessed via
agarose gel electrophoresis.
Results—Hyaluronidase activity was detected in
equine sera and synovial fluid samples at pH 4, but not
at pH 7, and in bovine sera at both pH values. In all
samples at pH 4, a major band of activity (molecular
weight, approx 60 kd) and some additional higher molecular
weight bands were detected; high- and low-molecular-weight activities were detected in bovine
sera at pH 7. Hyaluronan in tissue culture medium with
or without fetal calf serum was degraded in the presence,
but not the absence, of equine chondrocytes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hyaluronidase
activity was detected in equine sera and synovial fluid
at pH 4 and in bovine sera at pH 4 and 7. Primary chondrocytes
in monolayer culture can degrade exogenous
hyaluronan. Modulating native hyaluronidase activity
may offer a new approach to improve the quantity and
quality of hyaluronan in articular joints. ( Am J Vet Res 2005;66:984–990)
CASE DESCRIPTION A 6-year-old castrated male Boxer was evaluated for a 5-week history of frequent vomiting, melena, and signs of abdominal pain following accidental ingestion of 5 to ten 15-mg meloxicam tablets (approx ingested dose, 3.1 to 6.2 mg/kg [1.4 to 2.8 mg/lb]).
CLINICAL FINDINGS Clinical signs persisted despite 3 weeks of treatment with sucralfate (41.8 mg/kg [19 mg/lb], PO, q 8 h) and omeprazole (0.8 mg/kg [0.36 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h). Results of a CBC and serum biochemical analysis were unremarkable. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed peptic ulceration, and esophagogastroduodenoscopy confirmed the presence of severe proximal duodenal ulceration.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME A radiotelemetric pH-monitoring capsule was placed in the gastric fundus under endoscopic guidance for continuous at-home monitoring of intragastric pH and response to treatment. Treatment was continued with sucralfate (as previously prescribed) and omeprazole at an increased administration frequency (0.8 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h). Intragastric pH was consistently ≥ 3.0 for > 75% of the day during treatment, with the exception of 1 day when a single dose of omeprazole was inadvertently missed. Ulceration and clinical signs completely resolved.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE Continuous radiotelemetric monitoring of intragastric pH in the dog of this report was useful for confirming that treatment achieved a predetermined target pH and for demonstrating the impact of missed doses. Duodenal ulceration resolved with twice-daily but not once-daily omeprazole administration. Findings suggested that twice-daily administration of omeprazole may be necessary to achieve this target pH and that a pH ≥ 3.0 for 75% of the day may promote healing of peptic ulcers in dogs.
OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence of incompatible crossmatch results in dogs without a history of prior RBC transfusion and to evaluate changes in Hct following RBC administration for transfusion-naïve dogs that did and did not have crossmatching performed.
DESIGN Retrospective study.
ANIMALS 169 client-owned dogs.
PROCEDURES Information obtained from the medical records included signalment, pretransfusion Hct or PCV, and crossmatching results where applicable. Dogs that underwent major crossmatching (n = 149) as part of pretransfusion screening were each crossmatched with 3 potential donors. Donor blood was obtained from a commercial source and tested negative for dog erythrocyte antigens (DEAs) 1.1, 1.2, and 7 but positive for DEA 4. Mean change in Hct after transfusion was compared between crossmatch-tested dogs (57/91 that subsequently underwent RBC transfusion) and 20 other dogs that underwent RBC transfusion without prior crossmatching by statistical methods.
RESULTS 25 of 149 (17%) dogs evaluated by crossmatching were incompatible with 1 or 2 of the 3 potential donors. All 149 dogs were compatible with ≥ 1 potential donor. Mean ± SD change in Hct after transfusion was significantly higher in dogs that had crossmatching performed (12.5 ± 8.6%) than in dogs that did not undergo crossmatching (9.0 ± 4.3%).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated immunologic incompatibility can exist between first-time transfusion recipients and potential blood donor dogs. The clinical importance of these findings could not be evaluated, but considering the potential for immediate or delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions or shortened RBC life span, the authors suggest veterinarians consider crossmatching all dogs prior to transfusion when possible.
To compare glucose concentrations in peripheral venous and capillary blood samples collected from dogs before and after consumption of a meal and measured with a veterinary-specific portable blood glucose meter (PBGM).
12 dogs (96 blood samples).
A veterinary-specific PBGM was used to measure blood glucose concentrations. Glucose concentrations in capillary blood samples obtained from the carpal pad, medial aspect of a pinna, and oral mucosa were compared with glucose concentrations in blood samples obtained from a lateral saphenous vein. Samples were collected after food was withheld for 12 hours and again 2 hours after consumption of a meal.
Location of capillary blood collection had a significant effect on glucose concentrations measured with the PBGM. Glucose concentration in capillary blood collected from the medial aspect of the pinna did not differ significantly from the glucose concentration in peripheral venous blood samples, whereas glucose concentrations in blood samples collected from the carpal pad and oral mucosa differed significantly from the glucose concentration in peripheral venous blood samples. There was no significant difference between preprandial and postprandial blood glucose concentrations.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Glucose concentrations in capillary blood collected from the medial aspect of the pinna of dogs better reflected glucose concentrations in venous blood than concentrations measured in capillary blood collected from the carpal pad or oral mucosa.
Objective—To determine the prevalence of antibodies against 6 Leptospira serovars and determine risk factors associated with positive Leptospira titers in healthy client-owned dogs in Michigan.
Animals—1,241 healthy dogs at least 4 months of age.
Procedures—Dogs were examined by veterinarians at private practices. Vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs were enrolled in the study, which occurred prior to the availability of a 4-serovar (Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona) Leptospira vaccine. Sera were tested by use of the microscopic agglutination test to determine antibody titers against Leptospira serovars Bratislava, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic information about each dog to identify risk factors associated with seropositive status.
Results—309 of 1,241 (24.9%) dogs had antibody titers against at least 1 of the 6 Leptospira serovars, which suggested exposure to Leptospira spp. Prevalence of antibodies was highest to serovar Grippotyphosa, followed by Bratislava, Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona. Age, travel outside Michigan, exercise outside fenced yards, and exposure to livestock and wildlife were significant risk factors for positive titers.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Among healthy dogs from the lower peninsula of Michigan, > 20% have antibodies against leptospiral serovars historically considered uncommon but more recently incriminated as causing clinical canine leptospirosis. Wildlife and livestock may be of increasing importance as reservoirs for canine leptospirosis as urbanization continues to occur. Expanded vaccination strategies may partially mitigate these trends.