To report history, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic abnormalities, treatments, and outcomes of dogs with confirmed α-amanitin toxicosis resulting from ingestion of α-amanitin–containing mushrooms, and to report whether any differences were significant between survivors and nonsurvivors.
Medical records of all dogs with confirmed α-amanitin toxicosis presented to a northern California emergency and specialty veterinary hospital between January 2006 and July 2019 were reviewed for signalment; body weight; history; physical examination findings including rectal temperature at presentation; results of serum biochemical analyses, coagulation tests, and a test for the detection of α-amanitin in urine; treatments; and outcomes. Differences for each were compared between survivors and nonsurvivors.
Among the 59 dogs, 36 were < 1 year of age; 56 had variable clinical signs that included vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, and weakness or lethargy; and 22 had rectal temperatures > 39.2°C (102.5°F) at presentation. Cases were seen throughout the calendar year. At presentation, alanine aminotransferase activity was mildly to markedly increased in 97% of dogs, hypoglycemia was noted in 78%, and coagulation times were prolonged in 91%. Most dogs that rapidly decompensated died; however, 13 dogs survived to hospital discharge and completely recovered.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Ability to recognize dogs with α-amanitin toxicosis on the basis of clinical signs, physical examination findings, and clinicopathologic test results is essential because mushroom ingestion is rarely observed and immediate treatment is necessary. Dogs that have marked hypoglycemia or coagulopathy may have a poor prognosis.
Objective—To investigate contrast-enhanced ultrasonography as a minimally invasive method for the subjective and quantitative assessment of pancreatic and duodenal perfusion in healthy adult dogs, with reference to perfusion in adjacent liver tissue.
Animals—8 clinically normal adult dogs.
Procedures—Contrast-enhanced ultrasonograms of the right pancreatic limb, proximal portion of the descending duodenum, and adjacent liver were acquired after IV administration of a microbubble contrast medium. Following subjective evaluation, quantitative time-intensity curves were generated from regions of interest in the pancreas, duodenum, and liver. Five contrast medium characteristics representing perfusion parameters were determined for each organ and used for statistical analysis: interval to arrival, inflow rate, peak intensity (PI), time of peak intensity (TPI), and outflow rate.
Results—Significant associations between pancreatic and duodenal values were found for interval to contrast medium arrival, PI, TPI, and outflow rate. Pancreatic and duodenal inflow rates were not correlated. Inflow and outflow rates were significantly faster and TPI significantly shorter for the pancreas and duodenum, compared with values for the liver. There was no significant difference among all 3 organs for interval to arrival and PI of contrast medium. Subjective evaluation findings corresponded to quantitative analysis results.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that contrast-enhanced ultrasonography may be a useful, minimally invasive method for evaluating pancreatic and duodenal perfusion in dogs. The data from healthy dogs reported here could aid in the assessment of pancreatic and duodenal conditions and their response to medical treatment.
Objective—To assess the knowledge and use of infection control practices (ICPs) among US veterinarians.
Design—Anonymous mail-out population survey.
Procedures—In 2005 a questionnaire was mailed to US small animal, large animal, and equine veterinarians who were randomly selected from the AVMA membership to assess precaution awareness (PA) and veterinarians' perceptions of zoonotic disease risks. Respondents were assigned a PA score (0 to 4) on the basis of their responses (higher scores representing higher stringency of ICPs); within a practice type, respondents' scores were categorized as being within the upper 25% or lower 75% of scores (high and low PA ranking, respectively). Characteristics associated with low PA rankings were assessed.
Results—Generally, respondents did not engage in protective behaviors or use personal protective equipment considered appropriate to protect against zoonotic disease transmission. Small animal and equine veterinarians employed in practices that had no written infection control policy were significantly more likely to have low PA ranking. Male gender was associated with low PA ranking among small animal and large animal veterinarians; equine practitioners not working in a teaching or referral hospital were more likely to have low PA ranking than equine practitioners working in such institutions.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that most US veterinarians are not aware of appropriate personal protective equipment use and do not engage in practices that may help reduce zoonotic disease transmission. Gender differences may influence personal choices for ICPs. Provision of information and training on ICPs and establishment of written infection control policies could be effective means of improving ICPs in veterinary practices.
Objective—To determine the effects of 3 rations (low
grain, fat, high grain) on plasma creatine kinase (CK)
activity and lactate concentration in Thoroughbred
horses with recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis
Animals—5 Thoroughbreds with RER and 3 healthy
Thoroughbreds (control horses).
Procedures—Rations were formulated to meet (lowgrain
and fat rations) or exceed (high-grain ration) daily
energy requirements. Each ration was fed to horses
in a crossover design for 3 weeks. Horses were exercised
on a treadmill Monday through Friday; maximum
speed on Monday and Friday was 11 m/s (6%
slope), on Tuesday and Thursday was 9 m/s, and on
Wednesday was 4.5 m/s. Plasma CK activity and lactate
concentration were determined before and after
Results—Horses with RER fed the high-grain ration
had significantly greater CK activity and change in CK
activity 4 hours after exercise, compared with those
fed the low-grain ration. Horses with RER exercised at
the trot or canter had significantly greater increases in
CK activity, compared with those exercised at the gallop.
Plasma lactate concentrations after exercise
were similar in control and affected horses. Lactate
concentration and CK activity were not correlated in
horses with RER.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Rations high
in grain and formulated to exceed daily energy
requirements may increase episodes of rhabdomyolysis
in Thoroughbred horses susceptible to RER. (Am J
Vet Res 2000;61:1390–1395)
CASE DESCRIPTION A 5-year-old sexually intact female guinea pig was evaluated because of mild dysuria and a subcutaneous mass located cranioventral to the urogenital openings.
CLINICAL FINDINGS Non–contrast-enhanced CT and surgical exploration of the distal aspect of the urethra revealed a urethral diverticulum with an intraluminal urolith. Analysis revealed that the urolith was composed of calcium carbonate and struvite.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME The urolith was surgically removed and ablation of the urethral diverticulum was attempted. Approximately 3 months later, the guinea pig was reevaluated for masses in the perineal region, and positive-contrast urethrocystography revealed 2 uroliths present in the same diverticulum. Uroliths were manually expressed with the patient under general anesthesia. Approximately 2 weeks later, urethroplasty was performed to create an enlarged stoma with the diverticulum, thereby preventing urine from pooling in the diverticulum and potentially reducing the risk of future urolith formation. The urethroplasty site healed well with no reported complications or evidence of urolith recurrence 6 months after surgery.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE Urolithiasis is common in guinea pigs, and urethral diverticulum and intraluminal urolith formation should be considered as a potential differential diagnosis for a subcutaneous mass along the distal aspect of the urethra. Creation of a urethral stoma from a urethral diverticulum via urethroplasty achieved a successful outcome in this patient.
Objective—To determine the plasma pharmacokinetics
and synovial fluid concentrations after oral administration
of single and multiple doses of celecoxib in
Animals—7 adult Greyhounds.
Procedure—Dogs received celecoxib (median
dose, 11.8 mg/kg [range, 11.5 to 13.6 mg/kg], PO,
q 24 h) for 10 days. Blood samples were collected
prior to administration of celecoxib and serially for
24 hours after the 1st and 10th doses were administered.
A synovial joint catheter was placed into a
stifle joint in each dog for collection of synovial fluid
samples. Concentrations of celecoxib in plasma and
synovial fluid were quantified by use of a validated
liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method.
Identification of hydroxy- and carboxyl-celecoxib in
plasma and synovial fluid was also performed.
Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by
use of noncompartmental analysis.
Results—Administration of multiple doses of celecoxib
resulted in a significant decrease (40%) in median
area under the curve (AUC) values and a corresponding
decrease in median maximum concentrations
(Cmax; 2,620 to 2,032 ng/mL) between the 1st
and 10th doses. Synovial fluid concentrations were
less than the corresponding plasma concentrations at
all times except 24 hours after administration of the
10th dose of celecoxib.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Celecoxib distributes
into the synovial fluid of Greyhounds.
Although the exact mechanism for the decreases in
AUC and Cmax is not known, results suggested that
the plasma pharmacokinetics of celecoxib are different
after administration of multiple doses in
Greyhounds. These findings warrant further investigation
on the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and
elimination of celecoxib in Greyhounds and other
breeds of dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1441–1445)