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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the knowledge and use of infection control practices (ICPs) among US veterinarians.

Design—Anonymous mail-out population survey.

Procedures—In 2005 a questionnaire was mailed to US small animal, large animal, and equine veterinarians who were randomly selected from the AVMA membership to assess precaution awareness (PA) and veterinarians' perceptions of zoonotic disease risks. Respondents were assigned a PA score (0 to 4) on the basis of their responses (higher scores representing higher stringency of ICPs); within a practice type, respondents' scores were categorized as being within the upper 25% or lower 75% of scores (high and low PA ranking, respectively). Characteristics associated with low PA rankings were assessed.

Results—Generally, respondents did not engage in protective behaviors or use personal protective equipment considered appropriate to protect against zoonotic disease transmission. Small animal and equine veterinarians employed in practices that had no written infection control policy were significantly more likely to have low PA ranking. Male gender was associated with low PA ranking among small animal and large animal veterinarians; equine practitioners not working in a teaching or referral hospital were more likely to have low PA ranking than equine practitioners working in such institutions.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that most US veterinarians are not aware of appropriate personal protective equipment use and do not engage in practices that may help reduce zoonotic disease transmission. Gender differences may influence personal choices for ICPs. Provision of information and training on ICPs and establishment of written infection control policies could be effective means of improving ICPs in veterinary practices.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate clinical characteristics, outcome, and prognostic variables in a cohort of dogs surviving > 1 year after an initial diagnosis of osteosarcoma.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—90 client-owned dogs.

Procedures—Medical records for an 11-year period from 1997 through 2008 were reviewed, and patients with appendicular osteosarcoma that lived > 1 year after initial histopathologic diagnosis were studied. Variables including signalment, weight, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, tumor location, surgery, and adjuvant therapies were recorded. Median survival times were calculated by means of a Kaplan-Meier survival function. Univariate analysis was conducted to compare the survival function for categorical variables, and the Cox proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the likelihood of death > 1 year after diagnosis on the basis of the selected risk factors.

Results—90 dogs met the inclusion criteria; clinical laboratory information was not available in all cases. Median age was 8.2 years (range, 2.7 to 13.3 years), and median weight was 38 kg (83.6 lb; range, 21 to 80 kg [46.2 to 176 lb]). Serum alkaline phosphatase activity was high in 29 of 60 (48%) dogs. The most common tumor location was the distal portion of the radius (54/90 [60%]). Eighty-nine of 90 (99%) dogs underwent surgery, and 78 (87%) received chemotherapy. Overall, 49 of 90 (54%) dogs developed metastatic disease. The median survival time beyond 1 year was 243 days (range, 1 to 1,899 days). Dogs that developed a surgical-site infection after limb-sparing surgery had a significantly improved prognosis > 1 year after osteosarcoma diagnosis, compared with dogs that did not develop infections.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the present study indicated that dogs with an initial diagnosis of osteosarcoma that lived > 1 year had a median survival time beyond the initial year of approximately 8 months. As reported previously, the development of a surgical-site infection in dogs undergoing a limb-sparing surgery significantly affected prognosis and warrants further study.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the prevalence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in beef bulls; evaluate the presence of BLV provirus DNA in blood, smegma, and semen samples; and analyze whether blood BLV proviral load was associated with differential blood cell counts.

DESIGN

Observational cross-sectional study.

ANIMALS

121 beef bulls ≥ 2 years old from 39 Michigan herds.

PROCEDURES

Blood, smegma, and semen samples were collected from each bull during a routine breeding soundness examination. An ELISA was used to detect serum anti-BLV antibodies. A coordination of common motifs-quantitative PCR assay was used to detect BLV provirus DNA in blood, smegma, and semen samples. Bulls with positive results on both the BLV serum ELISA and coordination of common motifs-quantitative PCR assay were considered infected with BLV.

RESULTS

19 of 39 (48.7%) herds and 54 of 121 (44.6%) bulls were infected with BLV. Provirus DNA was detected in the blood of all 54 and in smegma of 4 BLV-infected bulls but was not detected in any semen sample. Lymphocyte count was significantly greater in BLV-infected bulls than in uninfected bulls. The proportion of BLV-infected bulls with lymphocytosis (16/54 [29.6%]) was greater than the proportion of uninfected bulls with lymphocytosis (6/67 [9%]). Lymphocyte count was positively associated with BLV proviral load in BLV-infected bulls.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that almost half of beef bulls and herds were infected with BLV, and BLV provirus DNA was detected in the smegma of some BLV-infected bulls. Bulls may have an important role in BLV transmission in beef herds.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the procedure of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in dogs with prostatic carcinoma and to evaluate the short-term outcome for treated dogs.

ANIMALS

20 client-owned dogs with prostatic carcinomas between May 2014 and July 2017.

PROCEDURES

In this prospective cohort study, dogs with carcinoma of the prostate underwent PAE with fluoroscopic guidance. Before and after PAE, dogs underwent CT and ultrasonographic examinations of the prostate, and each owner completed a questionnaire about the dog's clinical signs. Results for before versus after PAE were compared.

RESULTS

Prostatic artery embolization was successfully performed in all 20 dogs. Tenesmus, stranguria, and lethargy were significantly less common 30 days after PAE (n = 2, 1, and 0 dogs, respectively), compared with before PAE (9, 10, and 6 dogs, respectively). Median prostatic volume was significantly less 30 days after PAE (14.8 cm3; range, 0.4 to 48.1 cm3; interquartile [25th to 75th percentile] range, 6.7 to 19.5 cm3), compared with before PAE (21.7 cm3; range, 2.9 to 77.7 cm3; interquartile range, 11.0 to 35.1 cm3). All dogs had a reduction in prostatic volume after PAE, with a median prostatic volume loss of 39.4% (95% CI, 20.3% to 59.3%).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Prostatic artery embolization was associated with decreased prostate volume and improved clinical signs in this cohort. The short-term response to PAE appears promising, and evaluation of the long-term impact on survival time is needed.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association